Morphology and syntax

From Thai Language Wiki

Jump to: navigation, search




ST has three categories of basic, meaningful units: morphemes, lexemes, and syntactic constructions. These terms are defined In detail In the sections which follow, but roughly speaking morphemes correspond to the smallest meaningful units, lexemes to words (such as one might find In the dictionary), and syntactic constructions to phrases, clauses, and sentences.

Morphemes and lexemes share the characteristic that they may have variants - different forms under different circumstances. Lexemes and syntactic constructions share the characteristic of immediate constituents occurring in various orders: consecutive, simultaneous, discontinuous, repetitive, parallel, and interlocking. Morphemes have no immediate constituents (except on the morphophonemic level), and syntactic construction (as defined here) have no variants. Hence lexemes are the pivotal unit at this level, just as the syllable is the pivotal unit In phonology.

Morphology is here defined as the analysis of structure between the morphophonemic and lexemic levels. It includes such things as the listing of morphemes which do not participate In lexeme construction (2.2.) as well as the sub-syllabic ones which do (2.3.), and illustration of ways and orders In which morphemes combine to form lexemes (2.4.)

Syntax is here defined as the analysis of structure between the lexemic level and the level of the highest order of syntactic construction. It includes such things as the hierarchy of constituents - syntactic units, phrases, clauses, sentences, discourses, and exchanges (2.5.1.) - the analysis of constructions with regard to substitutability (2.5.2.) and order (2.5.3.), ultimately leading up to the classiflcatlon of lexemes and sentences with regard to function (2.6.).

Morphemes and Lexeme Construction

Morphemes, being the smallest meaningful units of ST, are actually sets of variant forms called morphs. It is therefore necessary to define the latter term first.

1) A morph is any morphophonemic sequence (from one phoneme upwards In length) which has meaning associated with it by ST speakers. The utterance /yyy/ 'Sure, lt works!' contains four morphs: 1) the morph /xxxx/ 'to walk, to function properly,' 2) the morph /yyy/ 'contradictory assertion,' 3) the morph / y/ 'emotional involvement,' and 4) the morph /./ 'end of clause construction.'

2) A morpheme is any set of morphs which have the same meaning and which either do not contrast in any single environment, or contrast in a manner not regarded as significant by ST speakers; or it is any single morph which does not belong to such a set. Individual members or a set of morphs belonging to the same morpheme are its allomorphs. The morphophonemic sequence /yyyyl 'to conduct, to proceed' contains a morph /yyyy/, which is an allomorph of the morpheme /yyyy/ (we have seen another of its allomorphs In the sequence /yyyy/) the other morph /yyyy/, which is infixed to /yyyy/, is an allomorph of a morpheme /yyy/ 'formal or technical connotation.' The discontinuous allomorph /yyyy/ does not contrast with the continuous allomorph /yyyy/ in any environment; the same applies to /yyyy/ and other allomorphs or /yyyy/ (see An example of a morpheme including only a single morph is /./ 'end of clause construction' (morph 4) above); all other morphs cited so far are members of allomorphic sets.

3) Morphemes are classified according to form and functlon as follows. Prosodic morphemes (2.2.) have morphs whose constituents are prosodic phonemes. Sub-categories include intonation and loud-stress morphemes (2.2.1.), rhythmic morphemes (2.2.2. and 2.2.4.), and normal-stress morphemes (2.2.3.) Sub-lexemic morphemes (2.3.) are morphemes some or all of whose morphs have syllabic phoneme constituents totalling less than a syllable, or a syllable plus a fraction. Sub-lexemic morphemes, therefore, do not occur by themselves as lexemes, but enter into lexeme composition. Sub-categories lnclude prefixes (2.3.1.), infixes (2.3.2.), superfixes (2.3.3.), and other fractional constituents (2.3.4-5.). Lexemic morphemes are those morphemes Which occur independently at the lexemlc level. In form they range from one syllable upwards. The majority or ST morphemes are, in fact, monosyllabic lexemlc morphemes: /maa/ 'to come. ' Two-syllable morphemes are also quite common: /kaw-ii/ 'chair'.

Morphemes of more than four syllables In length are hard to find, but the following five-syllable sequence is probably a slngle morpheme:

/yyyy/ monument.

4) Lexemic morphemes, like sub-lexemic ones, enter into composition of lexemes Which are larger than themselves (2.4.). Such composition is of three general types: derivatives (2.4.1.), compounds (2.4.2.), and reduplications (2.4.3.). Prosodic morphemes are also involved in lexeme composition, to some extent.

Lexemes and Syntactic Constructions

Lexemes, like morphemes, are actually sets of varlant forms. It is necessary, therefore, to define a prior term, lexical unit, in order to define a lexeme.

1) A lexical unit is any morph or combination of morphs corresponding morphophonemically to a single syllable or to an integral number of syllables (l.e. not a fraction of a syllable, or syllables plus residual fractions), such that it is a minimum immediate constituent of the construction in which It occurs. In other words, If lexical units are analyzable, they can only be analyzed after everything else in the context has been cleared away /ดำเนิน/yyy/ 'to conduct' is a lexical unit in the context /ดำเนินชีวิต/yyy/, 'to conduct ones life, 'because there is no construction /ดำ . . . ชีวิต/yyy/, /เนินชีวิต/yyy/ or the like.

Of the morphs cited so far, the examples /yyy/, /yyy/, /yyy/, and /yyy/ are not lexical units, because they fail to meet the requirement of syllabicity. Only two examples, /เดิน/yyy/ 'to walk, to function properly' and /ชีวิต/yyy/ 'life,' are lexical units, in the contexts /yyy/ and /yyy/ respectlvely. On the other hand, /เดิน/ is not a lexical unit in /ดำเนิน/yyy/ or in an expression such as /เดินแถว/yyy/ 'to march' where it is merely one of the constituent morphs.

Lexical units are not grammatically important except insofar as they are the individual units of which sets called lexemes consist. The proportion is as follows:

morphs: morphemes :: lexical units: lexemes

The first and third items are isolated forms; the third and fourth, sets of forms.

2) A lexeme is any set of lexical units which have the same meaning and Which either do not contrast in any single environment, or contrast in a manner not regarded as significant by ST speakers; or it is any single lexical unit which does not belong to such a set. To put it another way, lexemes are what one finds in a dictionary; the better the dictionary, the more lexemes it lists, but It never lists them all, and it never lists anything but lexemes.

Alternate lexical units belonging to the same lexeme are Its allolexes. For example, the lexeme /ดำเนิน/yyy/ has an allolex of that shape and also an allolex /ดำเนิน/yyy/, as in the sequence /ชอบดำเนินงาน/yyyyyy/ 'likes to conduct the work.' The lexeme /ชีวิต/yyy/ has an allolex /ชีวิต/yyy/, as in /ช่วยชีวิต/yyy/ 'to save someone's life.'

3) Lexical units, and therefore lexemes, can include combinations of morphs which are lexical units in their own right. For example, /ราชดำเนิน/yyy/ 'royal procession' meets all the criteria of a lexical unit - It consists of three whole syllables, and has to be analyzed last in whatever construction it is a part of. But, as we know, /ดำเนิน/yyy/ itself is a lexical unit. Lexemes are therefore classified in terms of orders, depending on the number of immediate constituents that can be distinguished.

First-order lexemes are single morphemes considered on the lexical level. /เดิน/yyy/ 'to walk, to function properly.'

Second-order lexemes consist of two constituents, which are both morphemes: /ดำเนิน/yyy/ 'to proceed, to conduct.'

Third-order lexemes consist of two constituents, one of which is analyzable (usually a lexeme itself), or three morphemes: /ราช-ดำเนิน/yyy/ 'royal procession' and /วันยังค่ำ/yyyy/ 'all day long' (วัน/wan/ 'day, ยัง/JaD/ 'to,' /ค่ำ/kham/ 'evening.) Lexemes of higher orders also exist.

4) The combination of lexemes into higher-order constructions has been defined as syntax (2.1.1., end). Lexemes combine with each other in all types of order except the simultaneous (2.5.2-3.). Lexemes also combine with prosodic morphemes In simultaneous order. This type of construction is considered syntactic (rather than morphological), because larger syntactic constructions comprising many lexemes also occur in simultaneous order with prosodic morphemes (see 2.5.1.).

Besides their classification based on internal structure ('first order,' etc.), lexemes are also classified on the basis of external structure - i.e. according to the types of syntactic construction in which they characteristically participate (2.6.1.). To distinguish this type of classification from the other, the term form-class is used. A form-class is a class of lexemes which fill a given position in a given syntactic construction, or which share a number of such positions.

Prosodlc Morphemes

Intonatlon and Loud-Stress Morphemes

1) /. / 'end of clause constructlon. I Example of contrast wlth / , /. kh00D khun-cid • khaw f~ag w~J . 'It belongs to Chlt. He left It here.' kho0D khun-cid , khaw f~ag w~J • 'It's sumethlng of Chlt's that he left here.' 38 Example of contrast of I t .1 wlth I t I by ltself: maJ Jaa~-nan t . dlaw Iud t . 'Not that way! It'll come loose!' maJ Jaa~-nan t dlaw Iud t . 'Otherwlse, It'll come 100seJ'

2) I t I, In the context I t .1, 'emotlonal lnvolvement. ' Example of contrast wlth zero (In answer to the questlon 'Is he gOlng~ ,): \ maJ-paJ: r~g • 'No, he's not.' maJ-paJ: r5g t . 'Not hlm! ' Allomorph: I t I In the context It ... t .1. (see last example under morpheme 1), where 'emotlonal lnvolvement' applles to both clauses.)

3) I, I 'clause constructlon contlnues, wlth maJor lmmedlate constltuent cut here. ' Example of contrast wlth I . Is see second example under morpheme 1). Example of contrast wlth zero: le8w khun-samag , capaJ naJ • 'And Samag, where lS he gOlng~ I lE8w khun-samag capaJ naJ • 'And where lS Samag gOlng~1 or 'Where are you gOlng, Samag~' Allomorph: I t I In the context It ... .1 or the context I t ... t.1 (where It lS a portmanteau morpheme - see morpheme 2), end.) Example of contrast In both contexts wlth I t .1: !mll ryys t man~d cabln daJ • 'Is there such a thlng as a human belng able to fly~' !mll ryy: t . pham maJ-chya • 'Is there such a thlng~! I don't be1leve It.!

4) ... :1 'contrastlve emphasls' (always followed by t) Example of contrast wlth normal stress (In answer to the questlon 'Is he gOlng~')~ !pa J: khr~b t . 'Of course he lsI' pa J: khr~b • ,Ye s, he l s. ' Allomorph: IJ ... t/, when syllable lS last In clause before I . I. (In thls posltlon, I t I lS the morphophonemlc verSlon of I : t I - see Example~ Jpa J t . 'Of course he's gOlng!' Allomorph: IJ S ••. s:l, when two or more syllables are covered by 'contrastlve emphasls.' (see /Jmll ryy:/ In last three examples under morpheme 3) above.) Allomorph: /J S ••• tl, when two or more syllables are covered by 'contrastlve emphasls' and last syllable comes before I . I. Example In second clause: maJ-chaJ chaam J dlaw t . J soo~ chaam t . 'Not one bowl! 1li£ bowlsJ ' Note: / J : / and the other varlants Ilsted above are not members of the morpheme 'contrastlve emphasls' In all cases of thelr occurrence. Certaln lnterJectlons (3.1.1.) have these morphophonemlc sequences as part of thelr morphemlc composltlon, e.g. /JtaaJ'/ 'Oh, my gosh! '

5) /! / by ltself 'exhortatlon to actlon; slgnal to conclude a conversatlon or pass to a new tOPlC. ' Example In contrast wlth I J t /' JpaJ . 'Let's go J ' Jpa J t . 'Of course he's gOlngJ' Example In contr~st wlth normal stress, Jaw • 'All rlght now (let's see).' aw . 'All rlght (I'll accept It.)'

Rhythmic Morphemes

1) I: I 'phrase construct1on cont1nues, w1th maJor 1mmed1ate const1tuent cut here. ' Example of contrast w1th I , I: v pa J na J: maa • 'Where have you been~' (/maal lS an adverb) v pa J na J , maa • 'Where are you gOlng, Mah~' (/maal lS a name) Example of contrast w1th I I: khaw phuud: khrab • 'He's talk1ng, Slr.' khaw phuud khrab samee • 'He always says Ikhrabl ('slr').'

2) I - I 'm1nor or no 1mmed1ate const1tuent cut here; sub-lexem1c or low-order syntact1c d1v1s1on.' Double example of contrast w1th I I: ta1J ton- sag • 'Stand a teak-tree upr1ght. ' ta1J- ton sag • 'Beg1n to tattoo.' In the f1rst example, Ita1JI lS a verb lexeme mean1ng 'set up, stand up (trans1t1ve),' and Iton-sagl lS a compound noun lexeme meaning 'teak-tree.' In the second example, Ita1J-tonl lS a compound verb lexeme mean1ng 'beg1n,' and Isagl lS a verb lexeme mean1ng 'tattoo.' In both cases I - I represents a sub-lexem1c cut. Example of contrast w1th I : I: tham r6d sla duaJ . 'Made the car break down too. ' tham r6d: sla-duaJ • 'Makes cars, bes1des (In add1t1on to d01ng other th1ngs). ' In both examples, the f1rst two lexemes are a verb 'make' and a noun 'car,' and the las t lexerne lS an adverb 'also.' The d1fference lS 1n the th1rd lexeme, Wh1Ch 1n the f1rst 1nstance f1l1s a maJor syntact1c slot as a 41 verb meanlng 'to be lost, destroyed,' and In the second lnstance lS a mlnor lexeme meanlng somethlng llke 'unlt verbal actlon.' In thlS case I-I represents a mlnor syntactlc cut, WhlCh lS made after the maJor cut represented by I : I· Example of I-I representlng no cut: talJ kaw-il . 'Set up chalrs.' Ikaw-ill 'chalr' lS an unanalyzable lexeme. All such lexemes In ST contaln the morph I-I, or ltS allomorph WhlCh follows below, In at least some contexts. Allomorph of 2): lAB cl and Ix ABI only. IABI (short syllable duratlon) In the contexts No contrastlve examples occur. Example of mlnor syntactlc cut: phil capa J • 'Older brother lntends to go. ' The lexeme Ical lS preposltlon meanlng 'hypothetlcal actlon.' Last cut lS between Ical and IpaJ/. Example of sub-Iexemlc cut: JUu thina J . 'Where lS 1 t'Z ' The lexeme IthinaJI 'where,' lS analyzable lnto two morphemes represented by the morphs Ithil 'at' and InaJI 'where.' Last cut lS between them. Example of no cut: , ,.. syy mamualJ • 'Buy mangoes. ' The lexeme ImamualJI 'mango' lS unanalyzable. When IABI occurs In the contexts IAB-cl and IX-ABI (l.e. when the morpheme I-I precedes or follows), lt lS not an allomorph of I-I. phon-lamaaJ • 'It's frul t. The compound lexlcal ltem 'frult' conslsts of three morphsl Iphonl 'frult, result,' the rhythmlc morph I-I, and IlamaaJ/, an allomorph of ImaaJI 'wood, trees' occurrlng only In thlS comblnatlon. The sequence Ilam~aJI contalns no rhythmlc morpho

3) I I (medlum syllable duratlon) In the context lAB c/, IA-B c/, IA Bel, or IA B-Cl (l.e. when morpheme 2) above elther lmmedlately precedes or follows): 'hlgher-order lmmedlate constltuent cut here, to be made before any cut represented by I-I; usually syntactlc but may be sublexemlc. ' Examples of syntactlc cuts (from 2) above): talJ-ton sag • IBegln to tattoo.' phil capa J • 'Older brother lntends to go. ' mamualJ dll • 'Good mangoes. I (A-B C) (A BC) (AB C) Example of sub-IeyemLc cut: mahaa w{d-JaalaJ • 'The unlversltv. ' ThlS lS a slngle lexeme conslstlng of four morphemes: /mahaa/ 'blg, /w{d-JaalaJ/ 'college' and the rhythmlc morphemes / / and I-I. The only cut to be made lS between /mahaa/ and the remalnder, unless tne sequence /w{dJaalaJ/ proves to be analyzable. Allomorph of 3), /A-B/ In the sequence /A-B-C/. Example: Jaa-kan-JulJ • 'MOSqUlto repellent' Immedlate constltuent analysls lS no dlfferent from the followlng, WhlCh also occurs: Jaa kan- JUlJ • 'Medlclne /Jaa/ for wardlng off /kan/ mosqultoes /JUlJ/.' fhe flrst ~ut In both cases lS between /Jaa/ and /kan-JulJ/, the second cut between Ikan/ and /JUlJ/. Both cuts are sub-lexemlc, Slnce the entlre sequence lS a slngle lexeme. (medlum syllable-duratlon) ln the context /A B: C/ (l.e. when morpheme 1) above lmmedlately follows): 'hlgherorder lmmedlate constltuent cut here, to be made after the cut represented by / , / but before any cut represented by I-I; always syntactlc.' chua J lya kan • /A B C/ 'Help Leua to prevent It.' ThlS morpheme lS best lllustrated ln multlple contrast wlth the rhythmlc morphemes already descrlbed, and wlth zero rhythmlc morpheme. Examples: chua J lya: kan • 'Help Leua, actlng as a group. ' chuaJ-Iya kan • 'ASS1St ln preventlng It.' chuaJ-Iya: kan • 'AsslSt each other. ' /A B: e/ IA-B e/ IA-B: e/ /A B e/ - Immedlate constltuent cut not lndlcated. In thlS phrase, the constltuent lexemes are a verb (A), a noun WhlCh lS a nlckname (B), and ~nother verb (e). The lntonatlon morpheme I . I makes It a clause, but there are no rhythmlc morphemes. The lmmedlate constltuent cut can be made tagmemlcally, but not on morphemlc eVldence. IA B: el - MaJor cut after IBI, hence last cut between IA/ and IB/. In thlS phrase the flrst two lexemes are as before, and the thlrd lS a pronoun (C). The rhythmlc morpheme / : / lS present, hence the space between /AI and IBI lS an lnstance of morpheme

4). /A-B e/ - Sub-lexemlC or low-order syntactlc cut between /A/ and /B/, hence flrst cut after IBI. The flrst two morphemes /A-B/ are constltuents of a compound verb lexeme of somewhat more formal meanlng than IA/ by ltself. The rhythmlc morpheme 1-/ lS present, hence the space between IB/ and /e/ lS an allomorph of morpheme 3) above. /A-BI el - Sub-lexemlc or low-order syntactlc cut between /A/ and /B/, maJor cut after IB/. As before, /A-B/ lS the compound verb, but /e/ lS now the pronoun.

5) /-1 In the context of a compound lexeme composed of numeral constltuents only: 'multlpllcatlon.' Examples: /haal 'flve' Isibl 'ten' /haa-sl.b/ 'flfty' /S:1.1/ 'four' /r~oJI 'hundred' /Sl.l-r~oJ/ '400' /saam/ 'three' /phan/ 'thousand' /saam-phan/ '3,000'

6) / I Examples: ln the context of a compound lexeme composed of numeral constltuents only: 'addltlon.' I sav am-phan sl" l-rooJ/ 44 'flfty-flye' '3,400 '

Normal-stress Morphs

Normal stress lS not morphophonemlcally dlstlngulshed from weak stress (see 1.8.3.), but a few prosodlc morphs eXlst WhlCh are more properly characterlzed as normal-stress morphs (l.e. morphs whose phonemlc shape lS normal stress) than as rhythmlc morphs. In the rhythmlc context /A-BI, syllable IBI has normal stress unless I : I precedes ln the same phrase. Occurrence ln such a context, therefore, lS eVldence of phonemlc normal stress.

Most classes of lexemes conslst of members WhlCh lnclude normal stress ln at least one syllable of soma ailolex (see 2.1.3. 2 .), but a few classes characterlstlcally lack stress ln all thelr forms - e.g. pronouns, preposltlons, and certaln klnds of classlflers. When normal stress occurs ln connectlon wlth such lexemes, therefore, lt lS not part of the lexlcal unlt but lS a morph ln ltS own rlght. Followlng are the two most easl1y recogn1zed members of thls class of morphs:

1) I' / (normal stress): an allomorph of Idlaw/ 'one, slngle' WhlCh occurs ln slmultaneous order wlth classlflers and certa1n numerals. chaaJ i1g-soo~ khon • 'Two more men. ' In thlS phrase IchaaJI lS a noun 'man,' lilg1 a preposlt1on 'further,' /soo~1 1S a numeral 'two,' and Ikhonl 1S a class1fler for people. chaaJ ilg-khon • 'One more man' Here the stress on Ikhonl 1S an lnstance of the morph I ' / 'one. I soo~-rooJ haa-sib • 'Two hundred and f1fty. ' rooJ haa-sib • 'One hundred and flfty. ' Here the numeral IrooJI 'hundred,' WhlCh usually has normal stress, occurs ln a stressless allomorph, and the actual stress 1S aga1n an allomorph of /dlawl 'one.'

2) I' I (normal stress) lS an allomorph of the demonstratlve morpheme In 'I ( WhlCh occurs In slmultaneous order wlth pronouns. kha0D pham JUU naJ-tuu • 'My thlngs are In the chest. I In the phrase Ikha0D pham/, the noun Ikha0DI Ithlngs l has normal stress, and the pronoun Iphoml 'I, me' has lts usual weak stress and modlfles the noun. kha0D-phom JUu naJ-tuu . 'Mlne lS (are) In the chest. I Thls tlme Ikha0DI lS the prepositlon 'of' and has weak stress, whlle the pronoun Iphaml has normal stress ~Dd lS ltS obJect. The translatlon 'mlne' corresponds to elther 'that of me' or 'those of me, I where the demonstratlve occurs In ltS allomorph I ' I. Note that the lmmedlate constltuent analysls for both sentences lS the same: IkhaoD phaml and IkhaoD-phoml both flll the same slot In the sentence, regardless of thelr lnternal analyses, and the rhythmlc eVldence lS of no help.

Other Examples of Prosodlc Contrast

1) The pairs of rhythmic contrasts presented below are glven wlthout addltlonal context, as sentence-fractlons whlch mlght occur In a number of slmllar envlronments.

tua JaalJ-n{l tua-JaalJ n{l faJ maJ-mll faJ-maJ mll naaJ-r~oJ khon-nan naaJ r~oJ-khonl nan khon-naJ dll khon naJ' dll khaa-syg paJ-le€w khaa syg: paJ-IE€w thaa-naam CahE€lJ thaa naam CahE€lJ roolJ haJ-dalJ r;0lJ-haJ dalJ haa khwaam-sanug 'a body llke thlS' Ithls example I 'therefs no electrlclty' 'flres occur I 'that offlcer of company grade' 'those hundred offlcers' 'whlch person lS good~' 'whlch should be mlxed~ , 'the enemy lS gone' 'I have left the monastery' 'the water sources wlll dry up' 'If the water drled up' 'try to shout loudly' 'weeps loudly' Iseek pleasure' haa-khwaam san~g tog-lolJ maa tog: lOlJ-maa maJ-thYlJ 188J maJ-thYlJ: 188J mll kam-lalJ dll mll kamlalJ-dll caw naa- ca-aw ca""w-na""a ca-aw , maa-aw Sll moolJ , maa aW-Sll moolJ , mya waan paJ-syy , mya-waan paJ-syy r~b-thaan khaaw r~b thaan khaaw 'have fun plcklng arguments' 'agreed to come' 'fell down towards us' 'hasn't reached Loel' 'hasn't reached there at all' 'has good strength' 'has Just the rlght amount' 'you ought to take It' 'the broker wlll get It' 'cure poor people' 'was able to treat people successfully' 'come to get lt too late' 'came to answer the phone' 'came to get lt at 10 o'clock' 'chose to come at 10 o'clock' 'thlS fork' 'flX thlS one (car)' 'when asked to buy It' 'went to buy lt yesterday' 'ea t rlce' 'recelve a glft of rlce'

2) The palrs of stress contrasts presented below do not dlffer ln the morphophonem1c representatlon adopted for thlS grammar, but d1ffer phonem1cally. The example contaln1ng the normal stressed syllable ln contrast 1S placed flrst and the stressed syllable 1S underllned. In the examples, the weak-stressed syllables 1n contrast are respect1vely a prepo31tlon, a conJunctlon, a class1fler, a modal, and a pronoun. talJ naan 'has been set up a long tlme' talJ naan 'for a very long t1me' thaa , , beeb-nan 'that type of landlng-place' tha.a bEeb-Mn ' 1f 1t 's tha t type' khan-lalJ khan-lalJ khaw klab paJ raad-burll khaw klab paJ raad-burll boog khun boog khun '(my) back ltches' 'the one (car) behlnd' 'He went back to RaJab~l. ' 'He unexpectedly went to RaJaburl. ' 'tell the vlrtues or' 'tell you'

3) The palrs or lntonatlon contrasts below all lnvolve the dlrrerence between / , / and no phrase boundary. In all cases, a proper name lS lnvolved. , khun ,samag , capa J: ma J • khun samag capaJ' maJ • tham haJ-sed koon , dll • tham haJ-sed koon dll • khun kholJ , capa J dua J I la t . khun kholJ capaJ duaJ: la t . 'Are you gOlng, Samag~ 'Are you volunteerlng to go~' 'Get lt done rlrst, Dee.' 'It would be good to get lt done rlrst' 'I guess Khong lS gOlng along. ' 'You're certalnly gOlng along!'

Sub-lexemlc Morphemes


Sub-lexemlc prerlxes are qUlte rare In ST, and all eXlstlng ones are non-productlve. The rollowlng are the most lmportant members or the category, Wl th example s •

1) /pra/, /pa/, /balJ/, and /p/ 'causatlve.' The rlrst two allomorphs always occur wlth short syllable-duratlon, and are In rree varlatlon berore most bases. The thlrd allomorph /balJ/ usually has short-syllable duratlon (never more than medlum-short) and lS restrlcted to bases beglnnlng wlth /k/ and /kh/. The last allomorph /p/ lS sub-syllablc, occurrlng only berore bases beglnnlng wlth /r/ and /1/. Arter /p/, the base-morpheme occurs as a sub-syllablc allomorph; lr lt ends In a stop, the tone changes to (or remalns) low. In most other cases, lncludlng the base-allomorphs WhlCh rollow /pra/, /pa/, and /balJ/, the tone remalns the same; there are a rew exceptlons.

Examples I Base W1th Pref1x /churn! 'to swarm' /prachum/ 'to assemble' /som/ 'harmon10us' /pasom/ 'to blend~ /th~b/ 'to be on top of' /prathab/ 'to aff1x' /khab/ 't1ght' /baIJkhab/ 'to regulate' /keed/ 'to be born' /baIJkeed/ 'to or1glnate' /10:0/ 'to go down' /plo:o/ 'to bury' /raab/ 'flat' /praab/ 'to subdue' /rab/ 'to rece1ve, hear' /prab/ 'to 1nfl1ct, tell' /l~g/ 'to wake up' /plug/ 'to waken' /looJ/ 'to float' /pl~oJ/ 'to release' (The last example has 1rregular tone. )

2) /kra/, /ka/, and /k/ 'reflex1ve' The relat1onsh1p among the allomorphs 1S exactly the same as among the f1rst, second, and fourth allomorphs of morpheme 1) /pra/, 1nclud1ng the change to low tone for bases end1ng 1n stops, after the allomorph /k/ (Wh1Ch occurs before bases beg1nn1ng w1th /w/ as well). The mean1ng of the pref1x lS hard to p1n down, but seems to be vaguely 'self-affect1ng act10n or condl t1on. ' Examples: Base /tham/ 'to do' /dood/ 'to Jump' /waa:o/ 'un1mpeded' /raab/ 'level' /l~b/ 'h1dden' Wlth Pref1x /kratham/ 'to act' /kradood/ 'to Jump' /kwaa:o/ 'spac1ous' /kraab/ 'to prostrate oneself' /klab/ 'to turn around'

3) /c1:O-/ 'pref1x for anlmals; espec1ally mammals, llzards, and large 1nsects' Precedes many bases, a few of Wh1Ch occur by themselvas, w1th med1umshort syllable durat1on. There 1S no change 1n the form of any base. 49 Examples I /C1.lJ- c;g/ /Cl.lJ-cQag/ /cllJ-ri1d/ 'small 11zard' 'fox' 'cr1cket'

4) /ka/ or /kra/ 'pref1x for an1mals; espec1ally b1rds and f1Sh' Precedes ~any bases, w1th short syllable-durat1on. If the morphs /nog/ 'b1rd' or /plaa/ 'f1Sh' precede, they have med1um-short durat1on, and the Iwhole comblnau1on lS a slngle lexeme. Examples: /kasaa/ or /nog-kasaa/ /kaI1lJ/ or /nog-kal1lJ/ /kapholJ/ or /plaa-kapholJl , stork' 'parrot' 'sea- bass'

5) /ma/ 'pref1x for plants; espec1ally vegetables and fru1ts' Precedes many bases, very few of Wh1Ch occur by themselves, w1th short durat1on. Examples. /maphraaw/ /makhya/ /mamualJ/ 'coconut' 'eggplant' 'mango' Allomorph /malJ/ occurs before a few bases: 'mangosteen' Allomorphs /m~ag-/ and /m~g-/ occur w1th med1um-short durat10n before many bases: /m~g-muan/ /m~ag-I1lJ/

Infixe s

'peach' 'small palm tree' Sub-Iexem1c 1nf1xes are so~ewhat more wldely dlstrlbuted In ST than preflxes, and one of them (the second llsted) can actually be sa1d to be productlve. There are only four common lnflxes. 50

1) /amn/, /am/, /ab/, and /m/. meanlng of base. ' 'formallty or technlcallty added to The allomorph /amn/ lS selected for most bases beglnnlng wlth a slngle consonant. The lnltlal consonant of the base plus /am/ becomes a syllable wlth short (or no more than medlum-short) duratlon; /n/ plus the remalnder of the base becomes a second syllable, WhlCh may have any duratlon except short. (When the base has zero lnltlal consonant, the /amn/ lS 1n effect a preflx.) For bases beglnnlng wlth a consonant cluster, the allomorph /am/ 1S 1nserted between the members of the cluster. For monosyllablc bases beglnnlng wlth /r/, the allomorph /ab/ lS selected. For d1syllablc bases, the allomorph /m/ lS lnserted at the and of the flrst syllable. The resultlng lexeme 1S In all cases two syllables long. Regular tone changes accompany the flrst two allomorphs. If the base morpheme has rlslng tone, the flrst syllable of the der1vatlve lexeme has rlslng tone, and the second syllable has mld tone. If the base morpheme has any other tone, the flrst syllable of the derlvatlve has mld tone. If the base morpheme ends ln a stop, the second syllable of the derlvatlve has low tone; otherwlse, the second syllable has the same tone as the base. Regular examples: Base /deen/ 'to walk' /sialJ/ 'volce' /caa J/ 'to pay' /uaJ/ 'to glve' /traa/ I stamp, seal' /thalaaJ/ 'to destroy' /keed/ 'to be born' /riab/ 'llned up' /ram/ 'to dance' /ralyg/ 'to be remlnded of' Wlth Inflx /damneen/ 'to conduct, proceed' /samnlalJ/ 'accent' /camnaa J/ 'to dlsburse' /amnuaJ/ 'to admlnlster' /tamraa/ 'textbook' /thamlaaJ/ 'to rUln' /kamneed/ 'blrth' /rab~ab/ 'order' /rabam/ 'to perform a dance' /ramlyg/ 'to remlnlsce' other examples lnvolve lrregularltles of tone, unpredlctable forms of the base morpheme or the lnflx, and unusual orders: /aad/ 'to be capable' /amnaad/ 'power' /nag/ 'heavy' /namnag/ 'welght' /trolJ/ 'to go stralght' /damrolJ/ 'to contlnue' /thaalJ/ 'way' /thamnoolJ/ 'method' /laa/ 'to take leave' /amlaa/ 'to' /lyy/ 'to spread hearsay' /rabyy/ 'rumor' /SOO13/ 'two, second' /samroolJ/ 'reserves' /sed/ 'f1.n1.shed' /samred/ 'successful'

2) /ee/, /e/, /ee/, and /e/ 'r1.d1.cule or l.nexactness added to of base morpheme. ' Th1.s h1.ghly l.nf1.X always l.nvolves a allomorph of the base morpheme, Slnce the vowel nucleus represented by the 1.nf1.x replaces the or1.g1.nal nucleus (or the nucleus of the last syllable, lf the base lS polysyllablc). ST speakers do not agree on the dlstrlbutlon of the l.nf1.x allomorphs, but a common pattern 1.S as follows. If the base (or ltS last syllable) has a long vowel or d1.phthong nucleus, a long-vowel allomorph, /ee/ or /ee/, lS selected; lf the base has a short vowel, /e/ or /e/ lS selected. For bases an orlglnal vowel nucleus of /ee/ or /e/, and for all bases endlng In /J/, the allomorph feel or /e/ lS selected. For bases orlg1.nal /ee/ or /e/, and for most bases endlng ln /w/, the allomorph /ee/ or /e/ lS selected. (Bases endlng In /eeJ/ or /eJ/ cannot take thlS lnflX, as /e8J/, /eJ/ are syllablc lmpoSSlbll1.tles.) For bases other than the types roentloned, the selectlon can be elther /88,e/ or /ee,e/, the only certaln rule the one whlch concerns length of nucleus. The result, lnflX allomorph plus base allomorph lS always preceded somewhere In the same clause by the base morpheme In ltS most common form. If the base morpheme comes dlrectly before the lnflxed morph, the former has roedlurn syllable duratlon, and the whole cornblnatlon lS a complex redupllcated lexeme (2.4.4.) wlth four constltuent morphs: base morpheme, rhythmlc morph, base allomorph plus lnflX allomorph. Examples: Base Morpheme /kln/ 'to eat' or /kln ken! /kln ken/ /thiaw th£ew/ 'fool around' 'electrlcal system' 'money and that sort of thlng' /theew theew/ 'general V1Cln1.ty' /faJ feJ/ /lJen 13en/ 'go around, VlSlt, go out for pleasure' 'SlIver, money' 'flre, electrlclty' /theew/ 'row, sectlon' /thiaw/ /chuaJ/ 'to help' /chuaJ cheeJ/ 'help out and that sort of thlng' /maD/ 'pot' /maD mee/ 'pots and pans' /pIDDm/ 'counterfelt' /plDDm pIe em/ 'counterfelt, etc. ' /huu/ 'ear' /huu heel 'ears and stuff' If the base lS a polysyllablc morpheme or a compound lexeme, the lnflx allomorph occurs In the last syllable, whethep thlS lS a whole morph or not: /na~-sYy/ 'books, letters' ttwo-syllable morpheme) /hen-caJ/ 'sympathlze' tcompound lexeme) 'llterature and that sort of thlng' 'sympathlze and all that stuff' All lnflxed forms also occur In dlscontlnuous orders (see and 5).

3) An extremely common but non-productlve lnflX wlth prlnclpal allomorphs/ aa/ and /a/ has the same condltlons of occurrence as lnflx 2) feel, etc., but a very dlfferent meanlng: 'emphaS1S or lntenslflcatlon of the concept denoted by the base morpheme.' It occurs malnly wlth redupllcated adJectlves, the ~esult belng an adverb, but also comblnes wlth other redupllcated forms as well. Base Derlvatlve /weew/ /Cl~/ /kras{b/ 'brllllant' 'true, slncere' 'to whlsper' /weew-waaw/ /cl~-ca~/ /kras{b-krasaab/ 'brllllantly' , s lncere ly , 'In whlspers' ThlS lnflX has so many allomorphs, however, that the morphologlcal analYS1S of the relatlonshlp between base and lnflx lS extremely compllcated for most lexemes In WhlCh lt occurs. *

4) A double lnflx, occurrlng dlscontlnuously In redupllcated lexemes (see, wlth prlnclpal allomorphs /U-l/ and /UU-ll/, has the meanlng 'lmpresslonlstlc vlsual or onomatopoetlc aUdltory descrlptlon.' It occurs malnly In adverbs and lsolatlves, but a few adJectlve lexemes lncorporate It. There lS some eVldence that the prlnclpal allomorphs, at least, are productlve. * See M.R. Haas, 'Technlques of Intenslflcatlon In Thal,' Word 2.127-30. For most cases, a separate dlctlonary 11Stlng of all redupllcated lexemes contalnlng the lnflx lS the slmplest Solutlon. Examples: Ikrad'g/ ('to fldget') IcAI ('concerned wlth detall') Ic'g/ (Idetalls l ) /s 'b/ ( 'whlsper') /kradug-kradig/ 'fldgety' ICUU-Cll/ 'petty, nagglng (of persons) , /cug-cig/ 'trlfllng (of thlngs) , Is~b-s{bl 'In whlspers' Other common allomorphsof the double lnflx are lllustrated In the followlng examples: Inflx le-al Derlvatlve 'cluttered, In the way' le-al /8-E/ lu-al I~ -al /J8-J8/ Ikhru-khral 'numerous' 'bumpy' A quadruple lnflx, found In at least one redupllcatlon, lS probably an allomorph of thls morpheme: Inflx Derlvatlve /C~g-c8g caa-cEEI 'sound of many people talklng' As In the case of 3) /aa/ etc., however, a separate d1ct1onary llst1ng of such lexemes 1S requ1red. There are many cases where the two 1nf1x types, 3) and 4), overlap.


1) Two superflxes whlch have the phonem1c shape / ' I, normal stress, but do not show up morphophonem1cally except by lnference from rhythm1c patterns, have already been mentloned ( 2 • 2 .3 . 1- 2 • ) Examples. /khon/ Ipham/ 'clasS1f1er for people' 'I, me' 54 /'khon/ I'pham/ 'one person' 'that of me, m1ne'

2) A superf1x w1th allomorphs I A I falllng tone, I 'I low tone, and zero (no change 1n tone) makes adverbs from four demonstratlves and two numerals. Examples: Base Lexeme Der1vat1ve In{l/ Iminl In~onl InaJ/ 'th1S' 'that' 'yon, the other' 'Wh1Ch' /nl1/ /nanl Inoonl InaJ/ 'here' 'there' 'yonder' 'where' (zero allomorph of superf1x) 'some' 'few' 'to some extent' 'a 11ttle'

3) Two superf1xes occur wlth certa1n responses and f1nal part1cles. The f1rst has the shape I N I, pla1n hlgh tone, and means 'quest1on or suggestlon; reply or assent expected.' The second has the shape I A I, fall1ng tone, or / ' /, constr1cted h1gh tone, and means 'statement or command; no reply expected.' Both of these superf1x morphs requ1re a spec1al toneless allomorph of the base, Wh1Ch cons1sts of the or1g1nal 1n1t1al consonant plus a short vowel, usually lal but 1n one case I 1 /. Examples: Base Lexeme /khaa/ 'woman answer1ng a call pol1tely' /caa/ 'answer1ng a Ch1ld's or equal's call' / Jaa;l 'man answer1ng a call rudely' IweeJ/ 'answer1ng an l.nt1mate's call r Ikhraab/ 'man answerlng a call pol1tely' /naa/ 'you see' IS111 'not otherW1se' Questlon Statement Ikhal Ikhal /cal Ical IJal /Ja/ Iwal Iwal or Iwal Ihal Ihal ££ Ikhrabl or Ikhrabl Ina/ .£!: Inaal Ina/ Ist/ Isi/ 55

4) A superflx wlth the shape / J N : / lS used by women on adJectlve bases wlth the meanlng 'emotlonal lntenslflcatlon of base meanlng. ' It lS the only truly productlve superflx In the language, and 11ke forms lnflxed wlth /e,e/ (, ltS superflxed forms occur only In close assoclatl0n wlth the base morpheme Itself. All klnds of adJectlves on all flve tones (other than / N /) occur wlth It. The adJectlve base occurs In a toneless allomorph to WhlCh the superflx / J N : / lS added, and lS lmmedlately followed by the base morpheme In lts usual form. The extra duratl0n represented by / : / lS not a morph, and so the complex lexeme WhlCh results has three constltuent morphs; Examples I Base Morpheme /dll/ 'good' /kaw/ 'old' /maag/ 'much' /r~Qn/ 'hot' /naaw/ 'cold' Derlvatlve /Jdil: dll/ 'excellentJ ' /Jkaw: kaw/ 'anclentJ ' /Jmaag: maag/ 'a tremendous amount' /Jr5Qn: r~Qn/ 'blazlngJ' /Jnaawl naaw/ 'freezlng'

Sub-syllablc Morphemes

Besldes preflxes, lnflxes, and superflxes, ST has a few other morphemes WhlCh have no allomorphs equlvalent to a whole syllable In form and hence do not correspond to lexemes. The lmportant cases result from the analysls of certaln demonstratlve and lnterrogatlve lexemes, but other classes of lexemes are lnvolved as well.

The followlng 11St of sub-syllablc morphemes, together wlth the 11St of morphemes havlng at least one sub-syllablc allomorph glven In the next sectlon (2.3.5.), lS lntended to glve a complete Vlew of the lnternal constructl0n of demonstratlves, lnterrogatlves, and thelr derlvatlves.

1) /n #/ (lnltlal /n/ plus constrlcted hlgh tone) 'demonstratlve.' Occurs Ln /n{l/ 'thlS,' /n~n/ 'that,' /n~on/ 'yon,' and the flnal partlcle /n~/ 'you see.' Allomorph /n/ occurs In /naJ/ 'WhlChl' Allomorph / ' / occurs wlth pronouns (see

2) /11/ 'close at hand, none other than, present.' Occurs In /n{l/ IthlS,' lts derlvatlves /~{1/ 'so' and, wlth falllng-tone superflx, /nll/ 'here' (see, also posslbly In the flnal partlcle /Sll/ 'not otherwlse, 1 the adverb IJuu-dll/ 'all the same,' and the derogatory lexeme /11/ ltself: /11 wan-n~n/ 'that very day,' /ll-meew/ 'the (blasted) cat.' (ThlS /11/ lS a lexlcal preflx - see 2.4.1.)

3) /an/ 'farther away, comparatlvely far, removed from the present' Occurs In /nan/ 'that' and lts derlvatlves /nan/ 'there' and /~an/ 'thus,' posslbly also In /than/ 'to catch up, get there.'

4) /oon/ 'other, absolutely far, two removes 'from the present' Occurs In /noon/ 'yon, the other of two,' ltS derlvatlve /noon/ 'yonder, rand /phoon/ (a reglonal varlant). Allomorphs of thlS morpheme posslbly occur In the demonstratlve noun /yyn/ 'others' and the pronoun /phyan/ 'other ones.'

5) /aJ/ 'WhlCh of llmlted posslbllltles' Occurs In the demonstratlve /naJ/ 'WhlCh,' ltS derlvatlves /naJ/ 'where' and the lsolatlve /~aJ/ 'what do you mean~' and In the questlon partlcle /maJ/ 'yes or no.'

6) /aJ/ 'WhlCh of unllmlted posslbllltles' Occurs chlefly In the free lexeme /raJ/ 'lndeflnlte demonstra~lve; what, some, any,' ltS allolex /daJ/, and thelr many derlvatlves, such as /araJ/ 'what,' /thaw-raJ/ 'how much,' /mya-raJ/ 'when,' /thll-raJ/ 'WhlCh lnstance,' /phuu-daJ/ 'anyone,' /mya-daJ/ 'any tlme,' and /thaw-daJ/ 'to any extent.' The morph /aJ/ occurs by ltself as a sub-syllablc constltuent In /thamaJ/ 'why' and /Ja~aJ/ 'how.' The whole comblnatlon /raJ/ occurs as a sUb-syllablc constltuent ln /khraJ/ 'who. '

7) /aJ/ 'the one lntended, the correct one of 11mlted posslbllltles' Occurs In /ch8J/ 'to be the one lntended,' the negatlve /m8J/ 'not, other than,' and posslbly such other lexemes as /h8J/ 'lntended for, r /d8J/ 'get, succeed,' and the derogatory lexeme /aJI ltself: /aJ-m~a/ 'the (blasted) dog' (a lexlcal preflx - see 2.4.1.) Allomorph /aJ/ occurs In the flnal partlcle /~aJ/ 'that's the one,' and posslbly In /waJ/ 'for future purposes. '

8) /~/ 'manner' Occurs ln /~{l/ 'so,' /~an/ 'thus,' /~aJ/ 'how; that's the one,' and thelr der~vatlves /Ja~{l/, /Ja~an/, /Ja~aJ/, and /~aJ/ 'what do you mean7'

9) /m/ 'negatlve' Occurs In /maJ/ 'not, other than' and the questlon- word /maJ/ 'yes or no. '

I0) /ch A/ 'deslgnator' Occurs ln /chaJ/ 'to be the one lntended,' /chyy/ 'name,' /chen/ 'to be an example of,' and posslbly an allomorph occurs ln /chil/ 'to pOlnt out' and /chan/ 'class.' Allomorph /cha/ occurs as syllablc morpheme constltuent In such lexemes as /chanil/ 'thlS way, thlS sort,' /chanan/ 'that way, that sort, , /chanaJ/ 'WhlCh sort,' and /chaph~/ 'especlally.'

11) /r/ 'lndeflnlte member of class' (Opposlte of 1) /n '/) Occurs chlefly In /raJ/ 'what, some, any' and ltS derlvatlves (see 6) above), but also In the conJunctlon /ryy/ 'or,' the questlon-partlcle /ryy/ and ltS allolex /ree/ 'or what,' and posslbly In the sentence-partlcle /rog/ 'or anythlng. I

Allomorph /n/ posslbly occurs In /ny~/ and /ny~/ lone, a certaln member of the class of. I

12) /yy/ lequlvalent' Occurs In /chyy/ 'name,' both lexemes /ryy/ above, and In /khyy/ lthat lS to say.' Allomorph /y~/ probably occurs In /ny~/ and /ny~/ lone, a certaln member of the class of, I and In the conJunctlons /sy~/ lsuch that,' /thy~/ and /cy~/ IWlth the result that. '

Morphemes wlth Sub-syllablc Allomorphs

Many morphemes of ST, other than those mentioned In the precedlng sectlons, have at least one allomorph whose sllape lS less than a syllable. A Ilst of the most lmportant ones follows.

1) /thll/ 'classlfler for lnstances' Occurs as a free lexeme wlth the prosodlc-superflx morpheme / I / lone' In /~lg-thll/ 'once more,' and In the followlng demonstratlve phrases (among others): /thll-raJ/ 'WhlCh tlme, r /thll-n{l/ 'thls tlme, I and /thll-dlaw/ 'once.' Allomorph /thl/ occurs In /thldlaw/ 'qulte, completely.' Allomorphs /th/ and /ch/ occur as sub-syllablc constltuents In allolexes of the above: /thlaw/ and /chlaw/ 'qulte, completely.'

2) /an/ 'classlfler for thlngs' Occurs as a free lexeme wlth the prosodlc-superflx morpheme / ' / 'one' In /pen ani 'lS one thlng, as a unlt,' and In the followlng demonstratlve phrases (among others): /an-naJ/ 'WhlCh one' and /an-n{l/ 'thlS one.' Allomorph /a/ occurs as a sub-syllablc constltuent In /araJ/ 'what. I

3) /khon/ lclasslfler for people I Occurs as a free lexeme wlth the prosodlc morpheme / ' / lone l In /~lg-khon/ 'one more person,' and In the followlng demonstratlve phrases (among others): /khon-naJ/ 'WhlCh person' and /khon-n~n/ 'that person. ' Allomorph /kh/ occurs as a sub-syllablc constltuent In /khraJ/ 'who. I

4) /tham/ 'to make, do' Occurs as a free verb lexeme In /tham khrua/ Ito do cooklng. I Allomorphs /tha-m/ and /thamm/ occur as a sub-syllablc constltuents (syllable plus a fractlon) In /thamaJ/ 'why, f and lts allolex /thammaJ/. 58

5) /Jaa~/ 'classlfler for klnds of thlngs, adverb of manner' Occurs as a free lexeme wlth the prosodlc morpheme / ' / In /ilg-Jaa~/ 'one more klnd' and In the followlng demonstratlve phrases (among others): /Jaa~n{ l/ 'thls klnd,' /Jaa~-naJ/ 'whlch klnd,' and /JaaD-raJ/ 'how.' Allomorph /JaD/ occurs In varlant forms of the same demonstratlve phrases: /JaD-n{l/, /JaD-naJ/, /JaD-raJ/. Allomorphs /Ja-D/ and /JaDD/ occur as sub-syllablc constltuents In the followlng lexlcal unlts (whlch are all allolexes of forms flrst llsted In /JaD{l/ and /JaDD{l/ 'so, thls way,' /JaD~n/ and /JaDD~n/ 'thus, that way,' /JaDaJ/ and /JaDDaJ/ 'how, what way; that's the one.' 6) /dlaw/ 'numeral one' Occurs after classlflers: /khon-dlaw/ 'one person, alone. I Allomorph / ' / occurs In slmultaneous order wlth classlflers and numerals (see Allomorph /law/ occurs as sub-syllablc constltuent In /thlaw/ and /chlaw/ 'qulte, completely' (see 1) /thll/ above). 2.4. Lexeme Composltlon

Lexeme Composition


In the preceding section we have seen second-order lexemes derived from base plus prefix (like /prachum/,, base plus inflix (like /damneen/,, base plus superfix (like /kha/,, or from a combination of two sub-syllabic morphemes (like /n{l/,, and thirdorder lexemes derived from superfixed base plus repetition of original base (like /!dll: dll/,, from original base plus repetition with inflix (like /kln ken/,, or from addition of a superfix to a combination of sub-syllabic morphemes (like /nll/, In all these types of derivative, sub-syllabic morphemes were involved. ST has still other derivatives, however, In which one of the constituents, while a free lexeme In its own right, is neither a modifier nor a head. Such derivatives are therefore not compounds or reduplications of free lexemes (see 2.4.3.), and must be treated separately. In most derivatives incorporating two or more constituents which are themselves lexemes, It is the first constituent that recurs In many combinations and is productive of new formations. Such common prlo~ constituents are lexical prefixes. The important lexical prefixes are listed below. All have medium-short syllable duration, unless the second constituent is extremely long and complex, In which case they have medium duration.

1) /kaan-/ 'the act of, affalrs of' Makes abstract nouns from verbs and verb expresslons, and from speclflc nouns and noun expresslons. Base Derlvatlve / w1lJ/ 'to run' /kaan-wllJ/ 'runnlng , /tad sya/ 'to cut clothes' /kaan- ta d- sya/ 'tallorlng' /baan/ 'house, home' /kaan-baan/ 'homework' /taalJ-pratheed/ 'forelgn' /kaan-taalJ-pratheed/ Iforelgn affalrs'

2) /khwaam-/ 'the condltlon of, the result of' Makes abstract nouns from adJectlves and adJectlve expresslons, and nouns descrlblng the result or obJect of actlon lmplled by verbs and verb expresslons. /lJOo/ /r~u/ Base 'stupld' 'to know' Derlvatlve /khwaam-lJOo/ /khwaam-ruu/ 'stupldlty' 'knowledge' /khaw-r~b tholJ/ 'to do homage to a flag'

3) /naa-/ 'worthy of' /khwaam khaw-r~b tholJ/ 'respect for the flag' Makes adJectlves from verbal bases. /r~g/ 'to love' /naa-r~g/ 'lovable, cute' /duu/ 'to look at' /naa-duu/ llnterestlng to look at' /falJ/ 'to 11sten 1 /mia-falJ/ 'lnterestlng to llsten to' Thlrd-order derlvatlves contalnlng both 2) /khwaam-/ and 3) /naa-/ are qUlte common: /khwaam-naa-duu/ 'vlsual lnterestlngness 1

4) /khl1-/ 'havlng a conslstent characterlstlc of' Makes adJectlves from adJectlve and verb bases whose/meanlngs lmply slngle lnstances of behavlor rather than characterlstlc behavlor •• /aaJ/ /koolJ/ Base 'to be ashamed' 'to defraud' Derlvatlve /khl1-aaJ/ /khl1- koolJ/ 'bashful' 'deceltful' /kiad/ /maw/ 'act slothfully' ' ted' /khll.-kiad/ /khll.-maw/ 'lazy' 'alcoholl.c'

(Note: /khll./ 'excrement' l.S a dl.fferent lexeme heads many compounds, all of are also nouns - e.g. /khil.-taa/ 'eye secretl.on.' Such compounds cannot be confused the above derl.vatl.ves.)

5) /taa~/ 'other' and /naa-naa/ 'varl.ous, plural' These two prefl.xes are grouped together because they share many co-constl.tuents. Both make noun derl.vatl.ves of plural from noun bases. Base tl.ves /pratheed/ /caD-wad/ /chanid/ /chaad/ 'country, natl.on' 'provl.nce' 'type, kl.nd' 'race, na tl.on' /taa~-pratheed/ /naa-naa pratheed/ /taa~-ca~wad/ /naa-naa chanid/ /taa~-chaad/ /naa-naa chaad/ '' '' 'the provl.nces ( Bangkok) , 'varlous kl.nds' '' 'races, natl.ons'

6) /khrya~-/ 'collection, equipment, mechanism' Makes collective nouns and nouns denoting klnds of machl.nery from all klnds of bases - nouns, verbs, adJectlves, and expresslons. Base /dyym/ /bl.n/ /phl.m-dil.d/ /karil./ 'to drl.nk' 'to fly' 'to type' 'curry' /khryalJ-dyym/ 'beverages' /khrYa~-bl.n/ 'al.rplane' /khrYalJ-phl.m-dll.d/ 'typewrl.ter' /khrYalJ-karll./ 'curry l.ngredl.ents' (Examples of the type 'alrplane' and typewrl.ter' are compounds rather than derl.vatl.ves, because /khryalJ/ can substl.tute for the whole.)

7) /khaalJ-/ and /byalJ-/ 'slde, aspect, ' and /phaaJ-/ ', place.' All three of these preflxes make abstract nouns from preposltl. OnS to do wlth place and Examples of all three the base /la~/ 'after, behl.nd': /khaa~-lalJ/ /byalJ-lalJ/ /phaaJ-l~~/ (For further examples, 'behl.nd, the rear' 'behl.nd, the hldden, the past' 'after, the future' see /naJ/-class, 4.2.1.) 6]

8) /raaJ-/ 'case, Instance,' and /pracam-/ 'assoclated wlth' These are allomorphs o:f a lexlcal pre:flx WhlCh makes nouns re:ferr1ng to :frequency o:f occurrence :from nouns deslgnatlng tlme-perlods. The allomorph /raaJ-/ IS used only wlth the smaller unlts. Base Derlvatlves /wan/ / sab- pa daa/ /dyan/ /pll/ 'day' 'week' 'month' 'year' /raa J-v.ran/ /pracam-wan/ /raaJ-sabpadaa/ /raaJ-dyan/ /pracam-pll/ 'dally' !dally' 'weekly' 'monthly' 'annual' In a :few klnds o:f derlvatlves Incorporatlng two or more const1tuents WhlCh are themselves lexemes, the last constltuent IS the one that recurs and produces new comblnatlons. Such lat~er constltuents are lexlcal su:f:f1xes. rwo of the most 1mportant ones are exempll:fled below (9-10). Slnce they termlnate thelr lexemes, they can have any syllable-duratlon :from med1um up, but the precedlng constltuent usually has medlum-short duratlon.

9) /ca/ heart

Makes verbs and adJectlves havlng to do wlth feellngs and thought processes from verb and adJectlve bases. Base /dll/ /khaw/ /ch5;)b/ /ph;);)/ 'good! 'enter I 'to llke' 'enough' /dll-caJ/ /khaw-caJ/ /ch5;)b-caJ/ /ph;);)-caJ/ Derlvatlve 'glad' 'understand' 'be pleased' 'be satlsfled. I

10) /-phaab/ 'form, shape' Makes abstract nouns from noun, verb, and adJectlve bases. ThlS sufflX IS nearly In complementary dlstrlbutlon wlth 2) the preflx /khwaam-/, as far as selectlon of bases IS concerned, and the meanIng of the two afflxes 1S about the same: 'the quallty o:f.' The sufflX sometlmes requlres a speclal allomorph o:f the base: some bases endlng In consonants are extended by a syllable o:f short duratlon, WhlCh conslsts of a fortls consonant of the same posltlon as the flnal of the base, plus the short vowel /a/; other bases have no extenslon, or unpredlctable extenslons. Base Derlvatlve /see-rll/ /id-sara/ /khun/ /sug/ /san/ 'free' 'free' 'vlrtue' 'happlness' 'secure, peaceful' /seerll-phaab/ /idsara-phaab/ /khun-naphaab/ /sug-kaphaab/ /san- tlphaab/ ! freedom' 'freedom' 'quallty' 'happlness' 'securlty, peace' (Notes /khwaam-sug/ 'happlness ' also eXlsts.) 11) Other lexlcal sufflxes worthy of mentlon: /-saad/ /-kaan/ /-k00n/ /-ch{g/ or /{g/ /-khom/ /- Jon/


'dlsclpllne, Sclence' 'work' 'worker' 'member' 'month wlth 31 days' 'month wlth 30 days' Compounds In ST, as deflned here, are characterlstlcally endocentrlc: the flrst constltuent lS the head and all other constltuents are modlflers; further constltuent cuts can be made on the basls of rhythmlc patterns. In nearly all cases, moreover, the form-class of the compound lexeme lS the same as that of the head constltuent when It occurs as an lndependent lexeme. Compounds are constructed from all types of head constltuent'lnouns belng the most frequent, then verbs, then adJectlves, then numerals, other form-classes belng relatlvely lnfrequent. Examples: /roolJ/ 'hall' (noun) /rlan/ 'to study' (verb) /rOOlJ-rlan/ ' school' (noun) /d88n/ 'to walk' (verb) /theew/ 'row' (noun) / d88n- the ew/ 'to march' (verb) /kee/ /faJ/ /kee-faJ/ 'dark' 'f1re' 'scorched' 'f1ve' 'ten' 'f1fty' (adJect1ve) (noun) (adJect1ve) (numeral) (numeral) plus rhythm1c morpheme /-/ (see (numeral) A few of the lexemes Wh1Ch occur most frequently as head-morphemes are listed below. /khon-/ and /phuu-/ /chaa:t;]-/ /caw-/ /r88:t;]-/ /chaaw-/ /mee-/ /thl1-/ /roo:t;]-/ /h5:t;]-/ /baan-/ /mya:t;]-/ /t88n-/ /phaag-/ 'agent, the one who does' 'craftsman' 'the one who f11ls a command or C1V11 serV1ce funct10n' 'second-1n- command, V1ce-' 'nat1ve of, c1t1zen of' 'woman who does' 'place where someth1ng lS done' 'publ1C bU1ld1ng, hall' 'room' 'v111age of' 'town or country of' 't1me or port10n of' , sec t10n of'

The except10ns to th1s pattern are of four types: 1) the head const1tuent lS a class1f1er, but the compound lS a noun, 2) the f1rst const1tuent lS not the head, and hence the compound lS 1rregular, 3) one const1tuent or another has a mean1ng 1n the compound unrelated to 1tS normal free-mean1ng, and 4) const1tuents have 1rregular allomorphs.

1) Class1f1er as head const1tuent of a noun compound lexeme. Examples w1th second const1tuent /maaJ/ 'wood, trees, pl&nts': /ton/ 'class1f1er for trees and plants' /ton-maa J/ 'tree' /ton-maaJ S08:t;] toni 64 'two trees' /baJ/ 'class1f1er f~r leaves, SllPS of paper, and receptacles' /baJ-maaJ/ 'leaf' /baJ-maaJ S00~ baJ/ 'two leaves' /d;og/ 'class1f1er for flowers and small-patterned obJects' /d;og-maaJ/ 'flower' /d;og-maaJ S00~ d;og/ 'two flowers' Examples 1nvolv1ng (4) 1rregular allomorph of const1tuent: /phon/ 'class1fer for fru1ts'

2) F1rst const1tuent not head of compound: Examples w1th /mahaa/ 'b1g', great': /w{d-thaJalaJ/ 'college' /mahaa-w{dthaJalaJ/ /samud/ 'salt water body' /mahaa-samud/ 'un1vers1ty' 'ocean' Examples w1th /eeg/ 'f1rst': /ag-kharaad-cathuud/ /eeg ag-kharaad-cathuud/ 'h1gh-rank1ng d1plomat' 'ambassador' W1th (4) 1rregular allomorph /karaad/: /raad/ 're1gn' /eeg-karaad/ Same morpheme /eeg/ 1n normal compound lexeme: 'autonomous' /naa~/ 'woman' /naaJJ-eeg/ 'hero1ne'

3) Mean1ng of lexeme not deduc1ble from mean1ngs of const1tuents as free lexemes: /tEE~/ to adorn' /l:Jaan/ 'work, ceremony, fa1r' /tEE~-~aan/ 'to be marr1ed' /tog/ 'to fall' /lo~/ 'down' /tog-Io~/ 'to agree' /lEEW/ 'already, over w1th' /tEE/ 'but, only' /IEEw-t8E/ 'depends on, lS up to'

4) Irregular allomorphs of const1tuents. Examples repeated from above: /lamaaJ/ /karaad/ 1n /phon-lamaaJ/ 1n /eeg-karaad/ 'fruit' ,autonomous '

Other examples: /phon/ 'lnd1v1dual' 1n /phon-thahaan/ 'lnd1v1dual m1l1tary man, pr1vate, etc.' (w1th /thahaan/ 'm1l1tary. ,) Allomorph /phon-Ia/ 1n /phon-Iaryan/ 'c1v1l1an' (w1th ryan 'household'), and /phon-lamyaD/ 'populat1on' (w1th /myaD/ 'town') /agsoon/ 'letters, 11terature' 1n /agsoon tam/ letters' (w1th /tam/ 'low') 'low class of Allomorph /agsoon-ra/ 1n /agsoon-rasaad/ 'the study of 11terature' (w1th /saad/ 'd1sc1pl1ne') Allomorph /agkhara/ 1n /agkhara-w{th11/' 'phonet1cs l (w1th /with11/ 'method') The last two examples also 1nvolve reverse order of const1tuents (2).


All redupl1cat1ons 1nvolve e1ther a repet1t1on of a base lexeme, w1th or w1thout change 1n the shape of the base, or a construct1on of the base lexeme w1th an element Wh1Ch, wh1le 1t may not resemble the base morphophonem1cally, lS found only 1n assoc1at1on w1th 1t. The border-I1ne between the two types lS not eas1ly drawn (see end), but 1n all cases the construct1on lS endocentr1c and the mean1ng of the redupl1cated lexeme lS substant1ally the same as- the mean1ng of the base lexeme, although the formclass may be d1fferent. Nearly all common lexemes of one or two syllables belong1ng to the maJor form-classes have spec1al comb1n1ng elements assoc1ated w1th them Wh1Ch y1eld more compl1cated lexemes of roughly the same mean1ng. If the comb1n1ng element 1tself occurs as a free lexeme w1th a slm1lar mean1ng, the comb1nat1on lS called a compound (2.4.2.): Const1tuent /t;o/ 'to confront' /chab/ 'qu1ck' Const1tuent /suu/ 'to compete' /waJ/ 'sens1t1ve' Compound /t;o-suu/ Ito f1ght' /chab-waJ/ 'alert' If the comb1n1ng element lS the unchanged form of the base plus some rhythm1c morpheme, one of the slmple redupl1cat1ons 11sted below (1-4) occurs. If the comb1n1ng element lS an 1nf1xed or superf1xed form of the base, one of the complex redupl1cat1ons 11sted below (5-8) occurs, and the comb1nlng element lS an 1nflXed redupl1cator or a superflXeq redupl1cator. 66

If the comblnlng element has some other morphophonemlc resemblance to the base, one of the lrregular redupllcatlons llsted below (9-10) occurs. The comblnlng element may be a rhymlng redupllcator, In whlch some portlon of the redupllcator matches the latter portlon of the base, or an alllteratlve redupllcator, In whlch the beglnnlng of the redupllcator matches the beglnnlng of the base.

If the comblnlng element has no appreclable resemblance to the base, and also does not occur as a free lexeme In a meanlng assoclated wlth the meanlng of the redupllcatlon, a quasl-redupllcatlon occurs. Quasl-redupllcatlons are llsted along wlth lrregular redupllcatlons (In 9-11 below). Examples of rhymlng, alllteratlve, and quasl redupllcators: Base Redupllcator /churn/ 'to swarm' /nurn/ (rhymlng, no meanlng1 /ph188n/ 'to be absorbed' /phle8d/ (alllteratlve, no meanlng) /san1~g/ 'to have fun' /sanaan/ (alll tera tlve, 'to ba the') /chuaJ/ 'to help' /lya/ ( 'to be left over' ) /klaalJ/ 'mlddle' /thaam/ (no meanlng) For slmple redupllcatlons, the order of constltuents lS lrrelevant, but the rhythmlc morpheme lS lmportant (1-4). For complex redupllcatlons, the order of constltuents IS flxed, but the rhythmlc pattern does not play an lmportant role (5-8). For lrregular and quasl redupllcatlons, the order of constltuents lS varlable and slgnlflcant, but the rhythmlc pattern lS automatlc (9-10). For the last type of quasl-redupllcatlon (11), both order and rhythm are flxed. The symbols used In the formulae for redupllcatlons are as follows. B- base or slmple redupllcator Bl- lnflxed redupllcator or base Bs- superflxed redupllcator Br- rhymlng redupllcator Ba- alllteratlve redupllcator Q- quasl redupllcator R- any of the last three redupllcators (Br, Ba, Q).

1) /B-B/ 'softenlng or approxlmlzlng of base meanlng' The constructlon conslsts of a slmple redupllcatlon, plus the morpheme /-/ 'sub-lexemlc lmmedlate constltuent cut.' It occurs 67 ma~nly w~th adJect~ve bases, where ~t ~s product~ve, but also w1th a ~ew spec1~lc m1nor ~orm-class bases. The redupl1cated lexemes ~rom adJect1ve bases ~nct1on only as mod1~lers and adverbs, and cannot ~111 the pred1cate pos1t1on (among others). In the mod1fy1ng pOS1t~ on, the base adJect1ve lS Ilm1t1ng, wh1le the redupl1cated lexeme lS non-l1m1t1ng, and a real contrast results: /nog J8.J/ /nog J8.J-J8.J/ Other examples: Base 'b1g b1rds' (an 1mpl1ed slze-class1~lcat1on) (lnc1dental 1n~ormat1on about slze) Redupl1cat1on /d~~/ /c~lJ/ /ly-yn/ /k8.w/ /kEE/ /kYab/ /thalJ/ 'good, well' 'true' 'sllpp1ng' 'old (o~ th1ngs)' lold (of people) , 'almost' 'the whole of' /d~l-d~l/ /C1lJ-C1lJ/ /lyyn-lyyn/ /k8.w-k8.w/ /kEE-kEE/ /kYab-kyab/ /thalJ-thalJ/ 'rather good, rather well' 'really' 'sllppery' 'old1Sh' 'elderly' 'approx1ma tely' 'lnclud1ng all o~, (The last two examples are not adJect1ve bases.)

2) /B-B/ 'plural1ty' Th~s lS a homonymous redupllcatlng constructlon Wh1Ch occurs w1th noun and class1f1er bases only. The noun bases WhlCh redupl1cate ~n th1S way are rather few 1n number, but the construct1on lS productlve for class1fler bases. Examples: Base Redupllcatlon /deg/ 'Ch1ld' /deg-deg/ 'ch1ldren' /talJ/ 'class1f1er for stacks' /pen talJ-talJ/ 'In stacks' /wan/ 'day' /pen wan-wan: paJ/ 'from day to day' /koon/ 'class1fler for lumps' /pen koon-koon/ 'In lumps' Alternate form of redupl~cat1on: /B B/ /pen talJ talJ/ 'In stacks'

3) /B B/ 'succeSS1on o~ aud1tory or v1sual 1mpress1ons' Th1S h1ghly product1ve construct1on cons1sts of a slmple redupl1cat~ on w1th med1um durat10n (In pract1ce, never represent1ng the 68 morpheme / / 'hlgh-order lmmedlate constltuent cut' on the flrst syllable. Nearly all bases that redupllcate In thlS way also occur, wlth the superflx / ' / or after numerals, as classlflers meanlng 'one lnstance of such a nOlse or slght.' The redupllcated lexemes are lsolatlves, and do not partlclpate In normal syntactlc constructlons. Examples, Base Redupllcatlon /k€g/ /{ed/ /khameb/ /weeb/ 'one rap' 'one creak' 'a labored breath' , a flash' /keg keg/ /{ed {ed/ /khameb khameb/ /weeb weeb/ 'wlth rapplng sounds' 'wlth creaklng sounns' 'breathlng weakly' 'In flashes' Alternate form /B-B/: /weeb-weeb/ 'In flashes' Base In numeral phrase: /S08~ keg/ 'two raps' Except for the dlfference In form-class of redupllcatlons of thlS type, they work exactly llke 2) 'plurallty' above.

4) /B, B/ 'repetltlve actlon' The constructlon conslsts of a slmple redupllcatlon, wlth the flrst lnstance of the base comlng at the end of one phrase and the second at the beglnnlng of the next. Although the occurrence of /, / suggests a maJor lmmedlate constltuent cut (rather than a sub-lexemlc cut), the correct analysls for /B , B/ lS a redupllcated lexeme WhlCh belongs to both phrases. Only verb bases occur In thlS constructlon. 'to walk' 'to go' Base Redupllca tlon /khaw deen , deen: paJ naan/ 'He walked and walked for a long tlme. ' /khaw deen: paJ , paJ ph6b/ 'He walked along untll he met .•. ' Alternate form of redupllcatlonl /B B/ /deen/ /paJ/ /mll khon paJ paJ ? maa maa ./ 'There were people comlng and gOlng. '

5) /B Bl/ 'rldlcule or lnexactness added to base meanlng' ThlS complex redupllcatlon, lnflxed base followlngr base (wlth medlum duratlon), occurs only In connectlon wlth the lnflx /ee// ee/(see Examples: 'to eat' /kln ken/ 'wlnlng and dlnlng' (For addltlonal examples, see

6) /B-Bl/ 'lntenslflcatlon of base meanlng' ThlS complex redupllcatlon, lnflxed base followlng base (wlth medlum-short duratlon), occurs only In connectlon wlth the lnflx /aa/-/a/ and lts allomorphs. Example: 'true' 'slncerely' (For addltlonal examples, see

7) /Bl-Bl/ 'lmpresslonlstlc descrlptlon' Thls complex redupllcatlon, conslstlng of two lnflxed bases (the flrst of whlch has the least posslble duratlon) occurs only In connectlon wlth the double lnflx /U-l/ and ltS allomorphs. Example: Example: /krad~g-kradig/ Alternate form: /Bl-Bl Bl-Bl/. 'fldgety' 'sound of many vOlces' (For addltlonal examples, see

8) /Bs B/ 'emotlonal lntenslflcatlon of base meanlng' Thls complex redupllcatlon, superflxed base (wlth medlum-long duratlon) precedlng base, occurs only In connectlon wlth the superflx / -: /, and hence only In women's speech. (see Example: 'good' 'excellentJ' (For addltlonal examples, see

9) /B-R/ 'generallty or formallty' The constructlon conslsts of the base (whlch has the least posslble duratlon, but not less than medlum-short) plus an lr~egular or quasl redupllcator. Some varlants are /B R/, /B-Br/, /B-Ba/, and /B-Q/. It occurs wlth all types of maJor form-class bases, rarelywlth mlnor form-class bases. The class of the base does not change; adJectlves redupllcated In thls way, for example, can flll the predlcate POSltlon. (cf. l./B-B/ above).

Examples: Base /churn/ 'to swarm' /chum-num/ Redupl1cat1on 'to assemble' (B-Br) /san~g/ /w~d/ I f1Sh-hook' ,Occ1dental' 'to have fun' 'temple' /sanug-sanaan/ /w~d-waa/ 'odds and ends 1 (B-Br) , Occ1dentals and such' (B- Br ) 'to be amused' (B-Ba) 'temples~ etc.' (B-Ba) /w~d-waa/ 'temples, etc.' /w~d-waa aaraam/ 'rel1g1ous 1nstallat1ons' (a th1rd-order lexeme, /B-Ba Q/, 1n Wh1Ch /B-Ba/ and /Q/ are const1tuents) 'to help' 'home, house' /chuaJ-lya/ /baan- ch5alJ/ , to ass 1s t' (B-Q) 'hearth and home' (B-Q)

10) /R-B/ 'prec1s1on,spec1f1cness' Th1S construct1on, the reverse of 7) /B-R/ 1n form and nearly 1n meanlng, conslsts of the lrregular or quasl redupllcator (WhlCh has least durat10n poss1ble) followed by the base. Some var1ants are /R B/, /Br-B/, /Ba-B/, and /Q-B/. It occurs ma1nly w1th maJor formclass bases, but also w1th some 1mportant m1nor form-class bases"too. In the latter case, espec1ally, the class membersh1p of the base lexeme lS often d1fferent from that of the redupl1cated lexeme. Examples: Base Redupl1cat1on 'ra1se up' 'to be absorbed' /nyaJ/ 'to be t1red' /khaw/ 'h1ll, mounta1n, etc. ' /klaalJ/ 'm1ddle, am1dst' /khaalJ/ 's 1de, be s 1de ' 71 /coalJ-haalJ/ /phleed-phleen/ /ned-nya J/ /phuu-khaw/ /thaam- klaalJ/ 'proud' (Br-B) 'completely engrossed! (Ba-B) 'exhaus ted' (Ba-B) 'mounta1n' (R-B) 'exact center' (R-B) 'rather, on the slde of' (Ba-B)

11) IB QI 'ult1mate degree' The construct1on cons1sts of an adJect1ve or noun base plus a quas1redupllcator (Wh1Ch may have only a m1n1mal lndependent eX1stence outs1de of th1S construct1on). The class membersh1p of the redupl1cat1on lS the same as that of the base. The redupl1cator 1n nearly all cases has the stress pattern I J I I, Wh1Ch lS not a loud-stress morpheme but a part of the redupl1cat1ng lexeme 1tself. Examples: Base Redupl1ca t10n Ikhaawl IdE: E:lJI Irewl 'Wh1 te' 'red' 'fast' Ikhaaw Jcueg:1 IdE:E:lJ Jpred:1 Irew Jpryy:1

Syntactic Constructions

'pure White ' 'Vivid red' 'lightning fast'

Simultaneous Construct1ons

1) A syntact1c un1t lS any lexeme or 1ntegral number of lexemes marked by rhythm1c eV1dence (see 2.2.2.) as an 1mmed1ate const1tuent of some larger construct1on, plus the rhythm1c morpheme or morphemes Wh1Ch so mark 1t by occurr1ng slmultaneously w1th 1t. The m1n1mum syntact1c un1t lS a slngle lexeme, w1th or wlthou~ rhythm1c morpheme. The follow1ng example conta1ns two m1n1mum syntact1c un1ts, the lexemes IpaJI 'go' and Ikhrabl 'pol1te word for men,' Wh1Ch share the slmultaneous occurrence of I : I 'phrase construct10n cont1nues, w1th maJor 1mmed1ate const1tuent cut here' ( paJI khrab • 'Yes, slr, (he's) gOlng.' Syntact1c un1ts are always smaller than morphophonem1c phrases, because of the requ1rement that 1mmed1ate const1tuent cuts be establ1shed rhythm1cally, but ~hey may be of any length. The follow1ng sequence lS marked off 1nto syntact1c un1ts w1th slant llnes for 111ustrat1ve purposes: phuu-JllJ I khon-nan I maJ-daJ-pen I khruu: I r;g Ikhrab t . 'That woman lsn't a teacherJ' ('Woman lone-that I not-actually-be I teacher I utterly I slrJ') The sequence end1ng Ikhruu.1 lS also a syntact1c un1t. A sequence of three lexemes, the f1rst two of Wh1Ch have med1um syllable-durat1on I I, corresponds to three syntact1c un1ts; the negat1ve rhythm1c eV1dence makes any other d1V1S1on 1mposs1ble: ch3nb k1n plaa . 'L1kes to eat flsh. '

2) A syntactlc phrase lS any lntegral number of ordered syntactlc unlts comprlslng an lmmedlate constltuent of a hlgher order plus whatever loud-stress morphemes may occur slmultaneously wlth the sequence (but not lncludlng lntonatlon morphemes whlch may also occur slmultaneously). All syntactlc phrases contaln at least one syntactlc unlt of two or more lexeme constltuents, or at least two syntactlc unlts wlth a slngle lexeme constltuent. Syntactlc phrases In consecutlve order are never longer than phonemlc phrases (see examples In 2.5.2.), although those In non-consecutlve orders may conslst of two or more phonemlc phrases (see examples In 2.5.3.).

3) A syntactlc clause lS any lntegral number of lower-order syntactlc constltuents (lexemes, unlts, or phrases) occurrlng slmultaneously wlth a slngle lntonatlon morpheme, plus the lntonatlon morpheme ltself. Hence syntactlc clauses are always co-extenslve wlth phonemlc clauses (see 1.8.4.).

4) A sentence lS any syntactic clause consldered from the pOlnt of Vlew of ltS constltuents and thelr classlflcatlon. Sub-types of sentences are llsted In 2.6.2., below.

5) A dlscourse lS any sequence of sentences uttered consecutlvely by the same person, and corresponds roughly to the utterance on the phonemlc level. Sentences quoted from the same dlscourse and used as examples In thls grammar are not ldentlfled In any speclal way, but If quoted consecutlvely are always separated by / . / In the text.

6) An exchange lS any sequence of dlscourses uttered consecutlvely by dlfferent speakers In dlrect communlcatlon wlth each other. Sentences quoted In the context of an exchange are ldentlfled by the prefaclng of a capltal letter to represent each speaker lnvolved (A, B, Q, R, etc.)

Consecutive-order Constructions

1) An endocentrlc phrase, or expresslon, lS any consecutlve-order syntactlc constructlon such that the flrst lexeme, or head, can substltute for the whole constructlon. Endocentrlc phrases wlll later be characterlzed by reference to the form-class of the head (whlch lS also the form-class of the whole phrase), as noun expreSSlon, verb expresslon, etc. Examples: /baan pham/ 'my home,' from /baan/ 'house' and /pham/ 'I, me.' (noun expresslon) /kln khaaw/ 'to eat,' from /kln/ 'eat' and /khaaw/ 'rlce.' (verb expresslon) /dll lakeen/ 'very good,' from /dll/ 'good' and /lakeen/ 'very' (adJectlve expresslon). The other const~tuent of an endocentr~c phrase (the const~tuent follow~ ng the head) ~s the mod1f1er. In the examples above, /baan/, /k1n/, and /d11/ are heads; /pham/, /khaaw/, and /lakeen! are mod1f1ers.

2) A pred1cat1on lS any consecut1ve-order syntact1c construct1on such that some lexeme or const1tuent other than the f1rst lexeme or const1tuent can Subst1tute for the whole construct1on. Any slngle lexeme Wh1Ch Subst1tutes 1n th1S way lS a pred1cator; a more complex const1tuent f1ll1ng the same role lS called a predicate. The f1rst const1tuent 1n a pred1cat1on .LS the subJect. The test of Subst1tut1on lS 9as1ly made 1n the context of a yes-no quest10n and 1tS answer. Predlcat10ns w1ll later be character1zed by reference to the for.m-class of the pred1cator, as verb pred1cat1on, adJect1ve pred1cat1on, etc. Examples. Quest10n khaw k1n: ma J • 'Wlll he eat lt~' Yes-Answer 'Yes. ' /k1n/ 'eat! 1S a verb, and /khaw k1n/ 1S a verb pred1cat1on. /khaw/ 1S the subJect. khaaw d11: maJ • 'Is the r1ce good~ ! d11 • 'Yes. ' /dl1/ 'good' lS an adJect1ve, and /khaaw d11/ lS an adJect1ve predlcat1on. /khaaw/ lS the subJect. khaw tSD k1n: maJ . 'Does he have to eat 1t~' tSD. ' 'Yes' /tSD/ 'has to' lS a modal verb; 1t Subst1tutes for the endocentr1c pred1cate /tS~ k1n/ 'has to eat,' and also for the ent1re pred1cat1on /khaw tOD k1n/, WhlCh lS hence a modal verb pred1cat10n. The res1dual const1tuents of pred1cates, after the pred1cator has been 1dent1fled, are objects. In the pred1cate /tSD k1n! 'has to eat,' /k1n/ lS the obJect. Some pred1cates appear to have two obJects, but 1mmedlate const1tuent analys1s 1n such cases always shows two pred1cates, one 1ncluded 1h the other. Examplee 'He bored a hole 1n the box. ' The subject lS /khaw/ and th€ ma1n pr€dlcate lS /co-ruu h~lb/, Wh1Ch has 1tS own oonstltuents, /co-ruu/ 'bore a hole,' a secondary predlcate, and 1ts obJect, /hi1b/ 'box.' The un1t /co-ruu/ conslsts of /eo/, predlcate, and /ruu/, obJect. For conven~ence, obJects such as /hi~bl are called -lndl- rect ob,]ects.

3) An exocentrlc constructlon IS any consecutlve-order syntactlc constructlon such that no slngle lexeme or constltuent can satlsfactorlly Substltute for the whole constructlon. Exocentrlc constructlons have no heads, but wlll later be characte.l'lZed by reference to the form-class of the flrst lexeme, as preposltlonal phrase, classlfler phrase, etc., although the constructlon does not belong to any such form-class. Examples: /kh;0~ pham/ 'mlne,' from /kh;0~/ 'belonglng to' and /pham/ 'I, me.' (preposltlonal phrase) /kho~ kln/ 'IS sure to eat, I from /kho~/ 'lS sure to' and /kln/ 'eat.' (modal phrase) /maJ-dll/ 'not good,' from /maJ/ 'not' and /dll/ 'good.' (negatlve phrase) If a resldual constltuent of any klnd IS In an exocentrlc construct1on, It IS called a complement rather than an obJect. (see end). Example: /khaaw JUu naJ-tuu ./ 'The rlce IS In the cab1net.' The subJect IS /khaaw/ 'r1ce,' the predlcator IS /Juu/ 'to be located,' and the resldue, /naJ-tuu/ IS a preposltlonal phrase meanlng 'ln the cablnet.' /tuu/ IS a complement.

4) An equatlon IS any exocentrlc constructlon WhlCh as a whole IS syntactlcally parallel to a predlcatlon; that IS, whose second constltuent can be Substltuted for by a predlcator: Examples: , v wan-nll wan-saw. , , wan-nll r00n . pham khaa-hag . pham maJ-sabaaJ . 'Today IS Saturday.' 'It's hot today' (predlcatlon) 'I have a broken leg! 'I'm not well.' (predlcatlon) The flrst constltuent of an equatlon IS the tOPIC; the second constltuent IS the equatlonal predlcator, If a slngle lexeme, or the equatlonal predlcate, If a more complex constructlon. In the above examples, /wan-n{l/ and /pham/ are tOPICS, /wan-saw/ 'Saturday' IS an equatlonal predlCator, and /khaa-hag/, WhlCh IS Itself a noun expressIon ('broken leg l ), IS an equatlonal predlca te. Predlcatlons WhICh appear to have two subJects are shown by Immedlate constItuent analysIs to conslst of a tOPIC plus an equatlonal predlcate WhICh 1S Itself a predlcatlon. Example: wan-n{l aakaad dll . 'The weather IS nIce today.' Here, /wan-n{l/ IS the tOPIC, and /aakaad dll/ IS the equatlonal predlcate, conslstlng of a predlcatlon wlth subJect /aakaad/ 'weather' and predlcator /dll/ 'good.'

5) An enumeratlon lS any exocentrlc constructlon WhlCh as a whole lS syntactlcally parallel to an endocentrlc expresslon; that lS, WhlCh can functlon In a larger constructlon as modlfler, subJect, tOP1C, or predlcate (but not as a head). Example: /soo~ moo~/ 'two o'clock' Nelther /soo~/ 'two! nor Imoo~/ 'hours, o'clock' can Substltute for the entlre phrase, WhlCh lS exocentrlc, and nothlng can Substltute for elther constltuent so that the result lS a predlcatlon or endocentr~c expresslon. The phrase occurs as a constltuent, however, everywhere that endocentrlc expresslons occur. Examples, TOP1C: Equatlonal Predlcate. SubJects soo~ moo~1 leEw • 'It's two o'clock.' naltkaa khoo~-phom soo~ moo~ • 'My watch (says) two o'clock.' soo~ moo~ kO-daJ. 'Two o'clock would be all rlght.' rod-faJ krabuan soo~ moo~ . 'The two o'clock traln.' Second Constltuent In Larger Exocentr~c Phrase: con-thy~ soo~ moo~ • 'Untll two o'clock.'

Non-consecutlve Constructlons

1) Dlscontlnuous constructlons occur when one lmmedlate constltuent lS SpIlt by the lnsertlon of another, so that consecutlve lmmedlate constltuent cuts cannot valldly be made. Dlscontlnuous constructlons can be found to correspond to all the sub-types of consecutlve-order constructlon llsted above (2.5.2.). Examples: keed Jaa~-teEgl khyn • 'It happened that a tlre blew out. ' The predlcatlon /Jaa~ teEg/ 'tlre bursts' lS lncluded In the dlscontlnuous modal phrase /keed ••• khyn/ 'It orlglnates, a new thlng happens.' khaw od phuud khwaan-cl~ maJ-daJ • 'He couldn't help telllng the truth.' The verb expresslon /phuud khwaam-cl~/ 'to tell the truth' lS lncluded In the dlscontlnuous modal phrase /;d ••• maJ-daJ/ 'not able to keep from.'

2) Parenthetlcal constructlons are a speclal case of dlscontlnuous conitructlons, In WhlCh the lnserted constltuent can be 'moved' to another locatlon, wlthout damage to the syntactlc relatlonshlp, In such a way that a consecutlve constructlon results. That lS, for every parenthetlcal constructlon, a parallel consecutlve constructlon eXlstsJ the same lS not true of ordlnary dlscontlnuous constructlons. Parenthetlcal constructlons of all types occur, and are usually marked by prosodlc phenomena of one klnd or another. Examples: khoo syy , daJ: maJ-khrab, nuu tua-n{l, t. 'I'd llke to buy - may I, Slr~ - thls mouse.' The maJor lmmedlate constltuents /khoo syy nuu tua-n{ll 'I'd llke to buy thlS mouse' and IdaJ: maJ-khrabl 'may I, Slr~' also occur In consecutlve order In the followlng sentence: khoo syY nuu tua-n{l , da J: ma J-khrab t. 'May I buy thlS mouse, Slr~'

3) Parallel constructlons occur when one lmmedlate constltuent lS repeated two or more tlmes In the same syntactlc relatlonshlp wlth a number of dlfferent co-const1tuents. Slmple parallel constructlons can be found to correspond to all the sub-types of consecut1ve constructlons. The 1ntonatlon morpheme I , I (see usually separates the segments contalnlng the repeated constltuent, and may occur also after the last constltuent of the parallel constructlon. Examples: paJ kO-daJ , JUu kO-daJ • 'You can elther go, or stay. ' The constltuent /ko-daJ/ 'can equally well' lS repeated In the same syntactlc relatlonshlp wlth /paJI 'go' and /Juu/ 'stay.' khaw maJ-daJ-aw ph8e , aw chana: kan • 'They don't pay any attentlon to (who) Wlns or loses.' The constltuent lawl 'to take' occurs tWlce, before verbs meanlng respectlvely 'to lose' and 'to W1n.' Two common conJunctlons It~a~ ... t~a~1 'each In a separate way' and /Ji~ •.• Ji~/ 'the more .•• the more' occur only In parallel constructlons, as does the postposltlon Iphlaa~••• phlaa~1 'do1ng one thlng lntermlttently wlth another.'

4) Dlscontlnuous parallel constructlons occur when the separate co-constltuents (l.e. not the repeated constltuent) are the two halves of a redupllcated lexeme (see 2.4.3.). These construct1ons are extremely common In colloqulal speech, and nearly every type of redupllcatlon except the slmplest is represented, as well as all sub-types of consecutlve constructlon.

Examples: Dlscontlnuous Parallel Constructlon aw clD , aw caD , 'Act In dead earnest' paJ wad, paJ waa , 'go to the temples and such' maJ paJ , maJ peJ: la . 'I guess I won't go.' hen naa , hen taa , 'See someone In person' Redupllca tlon clD-caD 'slncerely' wad-waa 'temple s, etc.' paJ P8J 'go, shmo r naa-taa 'face r

5) Interlocklng constructlons occur when both constltuents of a parallel constructlon are spIlt redupllcatlons. If redupllcatlon /AB/ lS In such a constructlon wlth redupllcatlon JCD/, the resultlng order lS /AC,BD,/.

Example: Interlocklng Constructlon maag naa , laaJ taa , 'Many faces (people)' Flrst Redupllcatlon maag-laaJ 'many' Second Redupllcatlon naa- taa 'faces' Interlocklng constructlons, unllke dlscontlnuous parallel constructlons, are extremely rare.

6) Comblnatlons of unusual orders wlth the varlOUS types of syntactlc constructlons outllned In 2.5.2. yleld the followlng termlnology (terms In parentheses are for contrast only): (Consecutlve) Dlscontlnuous (Normal) Parallel Interlocklng 78 Endocentrlc Expresslon Predlca tlon Exocentrlc Phrase Equatlon Enumeratlon


Lexeme Categories

All lexemes, regardless of theIr Internal (morphologIcal) constructIon, are claSSIfIed In terms of the types of syntactIC constructIon In WhIch they partIcIpate. ST has only two broad categorIes of lexemes, free and bound, but each category has many subdIVIsIons.

1) Free lexemes occur SImultaneously WIth IntonatIon and loud-stress morphemes, and In dIrect constructIQn WIth them form mInor sentences (see In SImpler terms, they occur 'In IsolatIon.' The maJor subcategorIes of free lexemes are lsolatlves, substantIves and predlcatlves. They are descr.lbed In Chapter 3.

2) Bound lexemes occur as constItuents of syntactIC unIts and hIgher-order constructIons only. The maJor sub-categorIes are preposItIons, conJunctIons, modals, postposItlons, and sentence partIcles. Chapter 4 dea;s WIth bound lexemes.

3) Some free lexemes have homonYmS WhICh are bound, and WIthIn each category there are homonYmOus lexemes belongIng to dIfferent sub-classes. There are also border-lIne cases between free and bound, but In general the dIstInctIon IS a clear and Important one for ST speakers.

Sentence Types

Sentences are claSSIfIed WIth respect to the morphologIcal and syntactIC constructIons WhIch are theIr prImary constItuents. The total number of pOSSIble sentence-types IS twelve (as can be seen from the summary In 6) below), but by fa~ the most co~mon type IS the maJor sentence, WIth the exclamatory mInor sentence probably comIng second.

1) An exclamatory sentence IS a clause occurrIng SImultaneously WIth the IntonatIon morpheme / t / lemot~onal Involvement. I 'Is thIS the coat~I'

2) A complex sentence IS any syntactIC clause contaInIng the morpheme / , / 'clause constructIon contInues,' provl'ded the occurrence of / , / COInCIdes WIth a syntactIC phrase boundary. sya tua-n{l rea khun saJ mya-khyyn-n{l 'Is thIS the coat you wore last nlght~ The followlng clause, WhlCh also contalns / , /, lS not a complex sentence because of the occurrence of a dlscontlnuous parallel constructlon: dlchan cadaJ paJ wad, paJ waa: kakhaw duaJ • 'I'll be able to go to the temples and so on along wlth the others.'

3) A maJor sentence has a predlcatlon as ltS prlmary constltuent. The second example glven above (2) lS a maJor sentence, the predlcatlon /dlchan cadaJ paJ wad-waa/ 'I'll be able to go to the temples, etc.' belng merely modlfled by the remalnder. The flrst example In (2) lS not a maJor sentence, Slnce the second phrase 'you wore last nlght,' although a predlcatlon, lS In an equatlonal relatlonshlp wlth the flrst phrase, WhlCh lS an enumeratlon, 'thlS coat",

4) An equatlonal sentence has an equatlon as ltS prlmary constltuent. The example 'Is thlS the coat you wore last nlght'" lS hence an equatlonal sentence. Examples of slmple (non-complex) equatlonal sentences: , v wan-nll wan-saw. pham chyy Clm • pham khaa-hag • 'Today is Saturday.' 'My name is Jlm.' 'I have a broken leg. '

5) A mlnor sentence has any other constructlon or a slngle lexeme as ltS prlmary constltuent. Examples are ldentlfled by reference to the classlflcatlon of the prlnclpal constltuent. Endocentrlc Constructlon: Exocentrlc Phrases Enumeratlon: Slngle Lexemet sya tua-n{l • naJ tuu k~b-na~-syy • soo~ khon. thaw-nan • , th1 s coa t. ' 'In the bookcase.' 'Only two people. ' 'For heaven's sake!'

6) Comblnatlons of the above sentence-types occur, and the termlnology corresponds. (Terms In parentheses are for contrast only.) (Normal) Exclamatory Complex Major Equatlonal Mlnor