Bound lexeme classes

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A modal lS any bound lexeme ( whlch occurs as Ixl In the context Is x pI, where lsi stands for a subJect and Ipi for a predlcate. Thus modals flll the same posltlon as the free lexeme class of modal verbs (3.3.1.), the dlfference belng that modals do not substltute for thelr predlcatlons and hence are not predlcators. The class meanlng lS the same: 'mode of actlon, or speclflc appllcablllty of sltuatlon descrlbed.' The whole class lS apparently closed, and the membershlp lS relatlvely small. Modals are sub-classlfled on the basls of more speclflc contexts, revolvlng around a central sub-class (4.1.3.) whose members have negatlve meanlng. The general deflnltlon of modals also flts some klnds of conJunctlons, especlally the Icy~1 class (4.3.4.), but Slnce these bound lexemes always precede other modals, thelr classlflcatlon as conJunctlons lS consldered pre-emptlve. There are three deflnlte sub-classes of modals, plus a resldue of dlscontlnuous lexemes and other mlscellaneous ltems whlch make up a fourth group.

Ikhyynl Class

These modals occur between IJaal 'don't' and a verb. (The verb, llke all verbs followlng IJaa/, lS never preceded by Ica-I, but the modal ltself may be.) The class meanlng lS 'attltude of speaker toward the effect, tlmlng, or settlng of the actlon.' Ikhyyn/-class modals also occur frequently wlthout IJaa/, and are negated In statements wlth ImaJ-daJI rather than ImaJI (see 4.1.3.). The class lS closed, and rather small, the prlnclpal members belng the followlngl

1. Ikhyynl 'to do somethlng one knows lS wrong' Jaa-khyyn pl;oJ haJ-nuu tua-nan paJ . 'Don't release that mouse, agalnst your better Judgment.' khyyn tham Ja~an , thee k5-t5~ s;ob tog • 'If you keep on dOlng that,you'll certalnly fall the examlnatlon. '

2. /fyyn/ 'to force oneself to do somethlng dlstasteful' phed: nag, k5-Jaa fyyn kln: khaw-paJ • 'If It'S too peppery, don't force yourself to eat It.' khll-kiad ryy maJ khll-kiad , th88 k5-t5~ fyyn tham: paJ • 'Lazy or not, you've got to go ahead wlth It. I

3. /mua/ 'to keep on, to act stubbornly or tardlly' Jaa-mua thla~1 kan Juu-188J • 'Let's stop thlS senseless argulng.' khaw mua duu thll-Wll ph188n: paJ • 'He kept on watchlng televlslon In a state of trance.'

4. /ph8~/ or /phy~/ - 'to act prematurely' (after /Jaa/) 'to have acted recently' (otherwlse) Jaa-ph8~ paJI na, fan tog. 'Don't go yet; It'S ralnlng.' khaw phy~ klab-maa , mya-kil • 'He Just got back a moment ago. '

5. /klE€~/ or /klE~/ 'to pretend, to act so as to decelve' thaa khruu khyyn haJ kaan-baan maag-maag Ja~{l , chan caklE€~ tham so~-deed • 'If the teacher perslsts In glvlng such a lot of homework, I'm Just gOlng to put on a show of dOlng It.' khaw maJ-daJ-klE€~ chom • 'She wasn't Just pretendlng to admlre It.'

6. /lo~/ 'to act wrongly wlthout reallzlng It' Jaa-lo~ kh{d: paJ waa , wan-n{l pen wan-sug . 'Don't make the mlstake of thlnklng thlS lS Frlday. ' nag-bln khab khrya~-bln lo~ khaw-paJ naJ-mya~ khaa-syg . 'The pllot unwlttlngly flew the plane lnto enemy terr~tory.'

7. /klab/ 'to act contrary to expectatlons or to reverse preVlOUS behaVlor' chan tyan dll-dll , th88 klab tham maa-krood • 'I was chldlng you gently, but you got mad anyway. ' maa tEs-k;8n chan chS8b Sll-dSS~, tEs dlaw-n{l kl~b chS8b Sll-khlaw . 'Formerly I was fond of red, but now I llke green' chan nyg waa , khaw klE~ chom waa ar;8J , thl1-thES khaw kl~b chS8b C1~-C1~. 'I thought she was Just pretend1ng to llke the flavor of 1t, but 1n fact she really d1d llke 1t.'

8. /ESb/ 'to act surrept1t1ously or from concealment' chan Esb paJ-duu khaw tham • 'I sneaked 1n and watched them do 1t. '

9. /ph188J/ 'to act as a follower, to tag along' pham ph188J paJ-duaJ , daJ' maJ . 'May I go along w1th you~'

10. /phaaa kan/ and /chuaJ: kan/ 'to act as a group' d~g phaa-kan-wl~ khaam thanan: paJ . 'The ch1ldren all ran off across the street' maa chuaJ-kan-h~w • 'The dogs are all bark1ng at once. '

11. /maa/ 'to act toward the speaker, or so as to affect the speaker and h1S group' J~a-maa khlan bon kradaan-dam . 'Don't wr1te on th1S (or our) blackboard.' thood pham thamaJ t . 'Why come and blame me for 1t~ r

12. /paJ/ 'to act away from the speaker, or so as to affect 1nterests other than the speaker and hlS group' J~a-paJ khian bon kradaan-dam . 'Don't wr1te on that (or the1r) blackboard.' dlaw capaJ tham thuaJ-kEsw tESg . 'Watch out you don't go breaklng any glasses. ' Members 1-8 of th1S class apparently exclude each other semantlcally, although the only ObV10US palrs of antonyms are 3-4, 5-6, and 11-12. Internal order of the class 1S 1-8, 9-10, 11-12. Example: khyyn phaa-kan-na~ ni~-nl~ camaJ-san~g: 188J • 1 10 'If [we] all Just keep sltt1ng st1ll 1t won't be any fun at all. ' 135 'It may happen. ' deg phaa-kan-paJ keb d;og-maaJ len. 10 12 'The chlldren went off to plck flowers for fun. ' Members of the class also occur freely In constructlon wlth modal verbs and other pre-verbal classes. The usual order has the /khyyn/-class modal In second posltlon. th88 t5~-fyyn klnl khaw paJ • 'You Just have to make yourself eat It down. ' khaw cha~1 kl€E~ bon kradaan-dam . 'He certalnly llkes to fool around wrltlng on the blackboard. '

/mag/ Class

These modals are deflned by the context /x camaJ-V/. All members of the class occur more frequently wlthout /maJ-/ than wlth It, and In nonnegated verb phrases they behave exactly llke the modal verbs (3.3.1.), sometlmes enterlng lnto constructlon wlth them (below). All members except th~ group 5-7 occur frequently wlthout /ca-/. The class meanlng lS 'llkellhood or lmmlnence of actlon,' and for those members whlch occur wlthout /ca-/ also 'frequency of actlon.' Membe~s 8-11, WhlCh all mean 'almost,' are commonly found before numeral phrases as well. /mag/-class modals cannot be dlrectly negated, except wlth /maJ-chaJ/ In hypostasls. The class lS closed, and rather small, the prlnclpal members belng the followlngl 1. /mag/ 'frequently' /mag ca-/ 'llkely to'

2. /aad/ 'characterlstlcally' /aad ca-/ 'apt to, may' 3. /J5om/ 'frequently, /J5om ca-/ 'llkely to, apt to' characterlstlcally'

4· /kho~/ 'ordlnarlly, certalnly' /kholJ ca-/ 'must, must have' naJ ryduu-n{l fon mag tog nag: chlaw . 'In thls season It frequently ralns qUlte hard. ' aad capen paJ-daJ • 'It's qUlte posslble.' khaw aad camaJ-paJ k5-daJ. 'Then agaln he mlght not go. ' khon-khab-r~d J50m pen chaaw-taa~-pratheed . 'The drlvers are frequently forelgners. ' khon thll-chyy prlldaa , kholJ pen phuu-chaaJ • 'People named Prlda are ordlnarlly men. ' 136 mya hen waa pham maJ-J~u , khaw kho~ caklab baan • 'When he saw I was not there, he must have gone home. ' sil-d££~ kho~ camaJ-mll • 'There must not be any of the red. '

5. /hen ca-/ 'seems to, apparently'

6. /duu-myan ca-/ 'seems to, apparently'

7. /thaa ca-/ ' seems to, apparently' Sll-d££~ hen camaJ-mll • 'There doesn't seem to be any of the red. ' khaw duu-myan caklab baanl le£w • 'I guess he has gone home already.' naam thaa-camed • 'The water lS apparently all gone. ' khun-cid thaa camaJ-maa • 'I guess Chlt lS not comlng. '

8. /kyab/ 'almost' /k:Yab ca-/ 'about to, nearly'

9. /cuan/ 'almost' /cuan ca-/ 'about to, nearly' 10. /theb/ 'almost' /theb ca-/ 'about to, nearly'

11. /rlm/ 'almost' /rlm ca-/ 'about to, nearly' naam k:Yab camed • 'The water lS nearly all gone. ' chan khooJ: J~u , kyab saam chua-moo~ • 'I was waltlng for almost three hours. ' khaw len: kan , ~ab con myyd • 'They played untll It was almost dark. ' r6d-faJ cuan capaJ: J~u-le£w • 'The traln lS already about to go. ' chan nyaJ theb-cataaJ • '1 1m about to dle from fatlgue. ' thll-na~ theb camaJ-mll • 'There are almost no seats left. '

12. /kamla~/ 'In the process of, somewha t'

13. /kh3n-khaa~/ 'rather, qUlte' /kamla~ ca-/ 'about to' /kh3n-khaa~ ca-/ 'beglnnlng to' 'rather, qU1te' 'beg1nn1ng to' phl1-chaaJ kamlaD r1an naD-syy thl1-nan • 'Older brother 1S study1ng there. ' n~~D kamlaD capaJ haa-syY naD-syy thl1-nan . 'I was about to go shopp1ng for books there.' tEED rooD JaD{l khon-khaaD suaJ. 'The hall 1S rather pretty, the way 1t'S decorated.' Daan chan{l , prachaa-chon ch~g capaJ-kan-Ji J . 'The people are beg1nn1ng to go for th1S k1nd of fa1r 1n a b1g way. ' phuud kakhaw ch~g-cabya • 'It was rather bor1ng talk1ng to h1m. '

The members of th1S class apparently exclude each other semant1cally, although there are no ObV10US pa1rs of antonYms. There 1S consequently no 1nternal order for the class.

/m~g/-class modals comb1ne freely w1th modal verbs and other pre-verbal classes. They always precede such 1tems. n~g-r1an aad camaJ-toD paJ kO-daJ •

'The students may not have to go, at that. ' pham kYab camaJ-kheeJ paJ len-n~am thalee . 'I have almost never been sW1mm1ng'ln the ocean.' Daan n11 ch~g cakhoJ-sanug khyn • 'Th1S celebrat10n 1S f1nally start1ng to get roll1ng (beg1nn1ng to be more fun).'

Th1S class of modals cons1sts of the negat1ve /maJ/ and 1ts replacements, most of Wh1Ch are lexemes conta1n1ng the morph /maJ/ as f1rst const1tuent. The var10US members of the class 1nd1v1dually precede only certa1n cypes of pred1cate elements, w1th Wh1Ch they are 1n d1rect construct1on, but the class as a whole occurs before all types of pred1cate: verb, modal verb, adJect1ve, complet1ve verb, noun, and prepos1t1onal or numeral phrase. Each member has a spec1al relat1onsh1p w1th /ca-/ Wh1Ch has to be stated separately. The class mean1ng 1S 'negat1ve; restr1ct1on on the appl1cab1l1ty of a propos1t1on.' The members of the class not only exclude each other but also exclude the 1nterrogat1ve part1cle /maJ/ from the same clause. The class 1S small and closed, cons1stlng of only these n1ne members. 1. /maJ/, or /maJ/ 'not, other than'

Occurs unstressed and In close Juncture wlth ltS predlcator, whlch lS a verb, adJectlve, completlve or modal verb. Flrst form nearly always occurs before preposltlonal and numeral phrases, but otherWlse /maJ/ lS more common. Both forms follow /ca-/, and never precede It. pham maJ-kh88J paJ: 188J . 'I have never gone there.' pham maJ-paJ: 188J • 'I'm not gOlng at all.' pham paJ maJ-daJ' 188J • 'I can't go at all. ' pham paJ maJ-sad~ag: 188J • 'It's not at all convenlent for me to go.' pham aad camaJ-paJ kS-daJ • 'I may not go, elther.' /kh88J/, modal verb /daJ/, completlve verb /sad~ag/, adJectlve A V Ja~ maJ sWikiAdmin moo~: nll • 'Well, It's not two o'clock yet.' khaw waa~ caan , maJ naJ-tuu • 'She put the dlshes not (elsewhere than) In the cablnet.' 2. /maJ-daJ/ or /maJ-daJ/ 'In fact not, subJect other than what lS assumed. ' (Commonest In past sltuatlons but also occurs In present and future sltuatlons regarded as not capable of change.) Condltlons of occurrence are the same as for /maJ/, except that /maJ-daJ/ lS rare before modal and completlve verbs and preposltlonal phrases. seem to thlnk) good. t cloth pham maJ-daJ-paJ . 'I dldn't go.' or 'I'm not the one who lS gOlng. ' phaa nll maJ-daJ-dll • 'Thls cloth lS not the good (some other cloth lS).' or 'Thls cloth lS not (as you verb adJectlve r6d-faJ Ja~ maJ-daJ-paJ . 'The traln hasn't gone yet. ' D9 na, g-r1an tr1am maJ-daJ-kh"e~ . nag-r1a"n naaJ-r88J: thaw-nan, thll kh8~ • 'The preparatory students don't compete. Only the off1cer cand1da tes do.' The contrast between /maJ and /maJ-daJ/ 1S neatly p01nted up by the follow1ng pa1r of exchangess 'Is the englne warm yet~ , 'No, not yet. (It 1sn't warm yet.)' '" , Ja~ ma J-un • un khrya~ le8w rY-Ja~ . Ja~ ma J- da J-un • Q. Q. A. A. 'Have you warmed up the eng1ne yet~' 'No, not yet. (I haven't warmed lt up yet.)' In add1t1on to Subst1tut1ng for /maJ/, /maJ-daJ/ also occurs 1n places where /maJ/ does not, for example before /khyyn/-class modalss chan maJ-daJ-kle8~ chom: r5g t . 'I d1dn't pretend to adm1re 1t!'

3. /maJ-chaJ/ or /maJ-chaJ/ 'not a case of, pred1cate other than what 1S assumed' Occurs most commonly before noun pred1cates, but 1S also found before adJectlves, verbs, prepos1t1onal and numeral phrases, and (facultat1vely, at least) before any lexeme of the language whatsoever, 1n hypostas1s. F1rst form occurs 1n 1solat1on and normally precedes nouns and non-pred1cates; second form occurs elsewhere, unstressed and 1n close Juncture. Both are preceded by /ca-/~ maJ-chaJ baan. tyg . 'It's not a (wood) house. It's a stone bU1ld1ng.' aakaad maJ-chaJ-r~8n . ph88 sabaaJ. 'The weather lsn't hot, 1t'S Just r1ght.' khaw waa~ caan maJ-chaJ naJ-tuu . 'She puts the dlshes somewhere bes1des 1n the cupboard.' maJ-chaJ hog khon . haa khon, thaw-nan 'Not SlX people. Only f1ve. ' nag-r1an tr1am maJ-chaJ-kh'8~ . fyg • ICompet1ng 1S not what the preparatory students do. They pract1ce. I (Compare w1th last example under 2. /maJ-d&J/ above) The contrast between /maJ-daJ/ and /maJ-chsJ/ lS also lllustrated by the followlng, khon-nan maJ-daJ-chyy phoon • 'That person lsn't named Porn. ' chyY khon-nan maJ-chsJ phoon . sanid • 'That person's name lsn't Porn. It's Sanlt.' ThlS modal occurs also ln many flxed expresslons; for example: maJ-chaJ-n~oJ 'not a few, not a llttle, much, many' maJ-chaJ-len 'ln earnest, conslderably' (llt, 'not for fun')

4. /maJ-khoJ/ or ImaJ-khoJ/ 'hardly, not very; hardly ever, not very much' Condltlons of occurrence are the same as for /msJ/, except that /maJ-khoJI lS rare before modal verbs and numeral phrases and ln lsolatlon. Also, lt normally precedes /ca-/, rather than followlng lt as ImsJI does, and ln such cases occurs ln ltS flrst form. phaa nil maJ-khoJ-dll • 'ThlS cloth lsn't very good. ' phom-ee~ maJ-khoJ-paJ • 'I myself hardly ever go. ' khaw maJ-khoJ Jaag capaJ • 'She doesn't really want to go' duu maJ-khoJ casuaJ: 188J . 'It doesn't look at all pretty. ' duu IE£w , noon maJ-khoJ-Iab • 'After havlng seen lt, one can hardly sleep. ' /paJ/, verb /Jaag/, modal verb Ilab/, completlve verb

5. /maJ-than/ 'has not had tlme to, had not (by that tlme) , Occurs commonly before verbs and completlve verbs; rare elsewhere. Follows lea-I. '" , v,.", v weelaa-nan kh££n Ja~ rag-saa maJ-than-haaJ 'At that tlme the arm had not yet been healed. ' pham Ja~ maJ-than khaad: sa-ilg . 'I hadn't even guessed lt yet. ' /khaad/, verb /maa/, verb Iklua/, verb

6. /maJ-J~g/ 'has not (In the long run), not (lD splte of expectatlons) , Condltlons of occurrence are the same as for /maJ-than/. chan ch88n khaw 18EW , tEE khaw maJ-J~g maa. 'I lnvlted hlm, but he dldn't come. ' sanid tEE khaw , khun paJ , mla maJ-Jag pa J 'Sanl t went, but hlS wlfe dldn' t. ' !ne t l€EW. t ,. , maa nan: ! aaw maJ-Jag chaJ 'There! There he comes. Oh! It's not hlm after all. '

7. /maJ-hen/ or /maJ-hen/ 'apparently not, In my 0plnlon not' Occurs commonly before verbs and adJectlves; rare elsewhere. The correspondlng constructlon wlth /ca-/ lS /hen-camaJ/, In WhlCh /hen/ lS a member of the /m~g/- class and /maJ/ lS tbe only representatlve of the present class. khun sanid ma J-hen-maa: sa- thll . 'Apparently Sanlt hasn't come. ' or 'I don't thlnk Sanlt lS comlng. ' d;~g nil, chan maJ-hen suaJ: 188J . 'ThlS flower doesn't seem at all pretty /suaJ/, adJectlve to me. '

8. /maJ-ch88~1 'not really, really not' Condltlons of occurrence are the same as for /maJ-hen/. Does not occur wlth Ica-I. pham k5-maJ-ch88~ klua: thldlaw rog . 'Well, I wasn't really exactly afrald at all. '

9. IJaa/ 'don't, shouldn't' Occurs commonly before transltlve verbs and Ikhyyn/- class modals, and In lsolatlon; less commonly before adJectlves and other verbs. Never occurs before preposltlonal or numeral phrases, or In the same constructlon wlth Ica-I. Jaa-pa J na J: lee J na t . 'Don't go away anywhere, wlll you~' phil Jaa duu-thuug • 'Older brother shouldn't dlsparage It.' Jaa-khyyn kln khaw-paJ: Sl . 'Then don't (obstlnately) eat It. ' , , Jaa rew: nag • 'Not so fast1' Mlscellaneous Modals / duu- thuug/, verb /khyyn/, modal /rew/, adJectlve

The followlng do not comprlse a sub-class of modals, but are reSldue from the precedlng three clearly-deflned sub-classes. The dlscontlnuous and parallel modals (1-4) satlsfy the class deflnltlon only lnsofar as some of thelr elements are concerned; the remalnlng modals (5-8) satlsfy the general deflnltlon perfectly but have functlonal pecullarltles WhlCh prevent thelr belng lncluded In one of the sub-classes.

1. /ad •.. maJ-daJ/ 'to be unable to keep from' Occurs dlscontlnuously (see around verbs and verb expresslons. The morph /ad/ ltself does not Substltute for such predlcates, and hence lS not a modal verb by ltself. Examples: khaw ad phuUd khwaam- Cll;) ma J- da J . 'He was unable to keep from telllng the truth.' chan ad J~m maJ-daJ • 'I couldn't repress a smlle.' (/J~m/ lS a verb, 'to smlle. ,)

2. /keed ••. khyn/ 'It orlglnates, a new thlng happens' Occurs dlscontlnuously around verbs, verb expresslons and whole predlcatlons. (In the last case any ltem precedlng /keed/ In the same clause lS a tOP1C.) In all cases, nelther /keed/ nor /khyn/ Substltutes for the whole. Examples: rod-pham keed Jaal;)-tEcg: khyn • 'My car developed a flat tlre.' (/Jaal;)-tEcg/ lS a posslble predlcatlon: 'tlre bursts'.) keed rod chon: kan khyn • 'It happened that there was an accldent. ' (/r~d chon: kan/ lS a posslble predlcatlon: 'cars colllde. ,) keed khE~-khan: kan khyn • 'Suddenly started competlng wlth each other. ' (/khE~-khanl kan/ls a verb expresslon: 'to compete. ,)

3. /taa~.•. taa~/ 'each one In a dlfferent way' Occurs In parallel constructlon (see wlth whole predlcatlons. The subJect fllls the slot between the two /taa~/'s; the second /taa~/ lS the part of the redupllcated lexeme WhlCh fllls the modal posltlon, and can be followed by any klnd of predlcate. Example: taa~ khon , taa~ deen-thaa~ • 'Each person travels separately (goes hlS own way).' On the basls of ltS flrst element, /taa~.•. taa~/ lS also classlfled as a /diaw/-class conJunctlon (4.3.1.).

4. /Jl~ .•• Ji~/ 'the more ..• the more' Occurs In parallel constructlon, lntroduclng two predlcatlons WhlCh mayor may not have the same loglcal subJect. In cases where a real subJect lS present, the element /Ji~/ precedes lt, and only when a subJect lS lacklng does elther /Ji~/ fall lnto the modal posltlon. Examples: naa-1Ykaa kho~~-chan , Jl~ aw-paJ-kEE: , Jl~ deen rew: khyn, rew: khyn, thug thll • 'The more I take my watch to be repalred, the faster lt runs. ' (The tOP1C /naa-1Ykaa kho~~-chan/ 'my watch' lS the loglcal obJect of the flrst predlcate /aw-paJ-kEE:/ 'take to be repalred' and the loglcal subJect of /deen••• thug thll/ 'runs faster and faster all the tlme.' Both predlcates, however lack real sUbJects.) '" , Jl~ mll khon maag , Jl~ sanug • 'The more people there are, the merrler. ' On the basls of the posslble occurrence of elther element /Ji~/ before subJects, the ltem /Jl~... Jl~/ 1S also classlfled as a /diaw/-class conJunct10n (4.3.1.).

5. /cha~/ 'really, how surpr1s1ngly so, how, sure' Th1S modal probably belongs to the /mag/ class (4.1.2.) but has several pecul1ar1t1es. Unl1ke all other members of the /mag/ class, 1t 1S never followed by /ca-/. It has a lex1cal relat10nsh1p wlth the negat1ve /maJ-chee~/ 'not really' ( w1th Wh1Ch 1t 1S 144 ln complementary dlstrlbutl0n, and In the form /chaU/ cannot be negated at all. The clauses In WhlCh lt occurs qUlte often have the 'emotl0nal lnvolvement' lntona tl0n morpheme / t /. Flnally, lt sometlmes comes before the subject (lnstead of after lt, as do all true modals). Examples. deg khon-n{l cha~-phuuds Cl~ t 'ThlS Chlld really knows how to talk!' !mEE , duu si t cha~ maJ-kluat sa-IeeJ t . 'Say, but look! He's not a blt afraldl' cha~ phuud daJ t . 'How can you say such a thlngl' khun cha~ khab-r~d rews lakeen t 'You sure do drlve fast!'

6. /khoJ/ or /khoJ/ 'only then, not untl1 then, after havlng walted a whl1e. ' ThlS modal resembles the /khyyn/-class modals (4.1.1.) ln every respect except that lt does not occur ln the deflDltlve context (after /Jaa/ 'don't'). It precedes malnly verbs and adJectlves, and follows /ca-/ and the /mag/-class modals. It lS frequently found ln commands, where lt lS In dlrect contrast wlth /Jaa-pheu/ 'don't yet.' Its semantlc Opposlte /phe~/'Just now, not untl1 now' lS ln fact a /khyyn/-class modal ( The morphologlcally related negatlve /maJ-khoJ/ 'not very' ( does not have an excluslvely temporal meanlng, and lS consldered to be a separate l€xeme, rather than a syntactlc constructl0n of /maJ/ plus /khoJ/, because lt replaces /maJ/ everywhere. In the examples below, 111ustratl0ns of /phe~/ are lncluded for contrast. khaaw mya pll thll-1EEW maJ-~oog ~aam tEE pll-n{l khoJ dll khyn • 'The rlce last year dldn't grow well, but thlS year It's a 11tt1e better.' mya-waaD-n~l ph8~ roon khyn . 'It dldn't get hotter untl1 yesterday. (Only yesterday dld lt get hotter.) , Jaa-phy~ hU~ khaaw dlaw-n~l • ilg haa naa-thll , thff~( khoJ hU~ • 'Don't cook the rlce now. Walt flve mlnutes and then COOk~lt. ' Ja~: koon . dlaw khoJ-paJ . 'Not yet. Walt a 11ttle and then go. ' 145 ~aan n~~ chag-cakhoJ-sanug khyn • 'Thls celebratlon lS f~nally startlng to be fun.' 7. /kh5J-kh5J/ 'gradually, gently' /rllb-rllb/ 'hurrledly, wlthout pauslng'

These and other redupl~cated lexemes of s~m~lar meanlng are sometlmes found In the modal posltlon as well as thelr normal complement posltlon. The flrst lS based on the modal /kh5J/ above, the second on a modal verb /rllb/ 'to hurry.' The dlfference In meanlng seems to be that the modal posltlon refers more to the lncept~on of actlon and the complement poslt~on to the actlon as a '\.vhole. kh5 J-kh5 J len t . 'Don't play excltedly (when you start to play); I len kh5 J-kh5 J t . 'Play more qUletly (than you are now)J' kh5J-kh5J phuuda na • 'Speak softly, now.' khaw rllb-rllb phuud • 'He started talklng In a blg rush. '

8. /ca/ 'hypothetlcal sltuat~on,' the most common modal of all, lS also a preposltlon - see for examples. 4.2. Preposltlons A preposltlon lS any bound lexeme whlch lntroduces exocentrlc complement phrases. The functlon of preposltlons lS analogous to that of modals, the dlfference belng that the co-constltuents of preposltlonal phrases are substantlve rather than predlcatlve expresslons. The relatlonshlp between preposltlons and head-nouns lS the same as that between modals and modal verbs (whlch always head thelr predlcates); the larger constructlon lS of the same type but the preposltlon (or modal) cannot replace It, whereas the head noun (or modal verb) can~ In addlt~on, preposltlons normally have weak stress.

The class of preposltlons 1S not very large, but must be consldered open. Members 1nclude homonyms of both substantlve and predlcatlve lexemes Wh1Ch, when stressed, are heads of endocentr1c express1ons. For example, the stressed ltem /we-laa/ means 1tlme ' and lS an abstract noun: /we-laa waa~/ /soo~ we-laa/ 'free tlme' 'two separate tlmes'

But weak-stressed /welaa/ lS a preposltlon 'at': 'at two o'clock'

On the other hand, many of the most common preposltlons do not have such homonYms - e.g. /naJ/ 'In. r The class meanlng lS 'spatlal, temporal, numerlcal, or loglcal restrlctlon on a substantlve concept.' Preposltlons are sub-classlfled lnto flve categorles, wlth an lmportant resldue of extremely common ltems (4.2.6.). 4.2.1. /naJ/ Class ThlS class of preposltlons lS morphologlcally deflned by occurrence In derlvatlves wlth the lexlcal preflx /khaa~/ or /kha~/ 'slde' (see 2.4.1. 7.).A few also make other derlvatlveswlth the prlor elements /bya~-/ 'slde, r /thaa~-/ 'way,' /phaaJ-/ 'scope,' /t00n-/ 'part.' The resultant derlvatlves are nouns, and at the same tlme /thamaJ/- class complementlves ( They also flll mos~ of the posltlons of thelr base preposltlons as well. By themselves, /naJ/-class preposltlons occur wlth weak stress before and In constructlon wlth all types of nouns and noun-expresslons; they are rare before verb-expresslons. The class meanlng lS 'locatlve reference. ' The class lS closed and small, and ltS members are grouped In palrs of semantlc OPPosltes. Followlng are the lmportant members and thelr derlvatlves. The context for all examples lS the same: , ,

man JUu ••. nan ,It 1 s • •. the re. ' Preposltlon Derlvatlves

2. /no0g/ 'outslde of' /kha~-naJ/ /phaa J-na J/ /kha~-no0g/ 'lnslde' 'Wl thln' 'ou tSlde '

3. /bon/ 'on, up In' /kha~-bon/ /bya~-bon/

'top, upper portlon, upstalrs' 'upper slde, etc.' 'bottom, lower portlon, downstalrs' 'lower slde, etc.'

5. /nya/ 'above'

7. /naa/ 'In front of' /khalJ-nya/ 'up above' /phaa J-nya/ 'In superlor posltlon' /thaalJ-nya/ 'north' /khalJ-taJ/ 'down below, underneath' /phaa J- ta J/ 'In lnferlor posltlon' /thaalJ- ta J/ 'south' /khalJ-naa/ 'front' /phaaJ-naa/ 'future' /khalJ-lalJ/ 'back! /phaaJ-lalJ/ !future, after' /khalJ-khaalJ/ 'alongslde, to one slde'

10. /klaalJ/ 'In the mldst of' /khalJ-klaalJ/ 'mlddle' /toon-klaalJ/ 'mlddle part! As slmple preposltlons, the members of the /naJ/ class exclude each other, but many comblnatlons lnvolvlng the derlvatlves occur. Therd lS no lnternal order for the class.

/caag/ Class

The class conslsts of preposltlons WhlCh occur In the same constructlons as the /naJ/ class, but also occur before, and In constructlon wlth, phrases lntroduced by /naJ/-preposltlons. The class meanlng lS 'dlrectlon and Ilmlts of motlon. '

The class must be consldered open, Slnce weak-stressed verbs of motlon freel~ enter In (an example lS 13. /saJ/), but the number of frequent, standard members 1S small. In thlS latter category are members 1-4, Wh1Ch are among the most frequent lexemes In the language. Most members have homonyms belonglng to other classes.

Besldes the members 11sted below, the followlng ma1nly Ilterary preposltlons belong to the /caag/ classl /na/ /suu/ 'at! 'toward' 'agalnst, toward, object slgn\ 'to!

Where these 1tems have colloqulal uses, however, they are llsted under the approprlate category (e.g. /JalJ/ In Also not Ilsted below are three preposltlons requlrlng speclal treatment: /kwaa/, /khoolJ/, and /heClJ/ (see The prlnclpal colloqulal members of the /caag/ class follow. 148

1. /caag/ or /cag/ 'from, away from, out of' ;og maa caag tSJ ton-m~aJ • 'Came out from under a tree.' dln-soo Iud paJ-caag-myy . 'The pencll sllpped out of hlS hand. '

2. /tec/ or /te/ 'from, from the dlrectlon of, from the tlme of' ~og d88n-thaa~ tec-chaaw myYd • 'Started travellng In the early mornlng. ' ('from the early mornlng. ' da~ khyn te-Ia~ pratuu • !There was a nOlse from behlnd the door.'

3. /thl1/ or /tht/ 'at, to, over at, In the possesslon of' khooJ Juu-thl1-naa roo~-rlan • 'He's waltlng (over) In front of the school.' ph~b kan tht-baan phyan • 'We met at a frlend's house.' paJ tht-baan phyan • 'Go over to a frlend's house.' JUu tht-chan , haa baad • 'I stlll have (or owe you) flve baht.' ('There remalns to me flve baht. ,)

4. /thy~/ or /thy~/ and /con/ 'to, all the way to, reachlng' ~og paJ thy~-klaa~ mEe-naam • 'Went out lnto the mlddle of the rlver.' klab-maa thy~-baan welaa soo~ thum • 'Got back to the house at elght p.m. ' JUu thl1-nan con saam thum . 'Stayed there untll nlne p.m. '

5. /tro~/ 'rlght at, rlght to' JUu tro~-klaa~ mEe-naam • 'It's rlght In the mlddle of the rlver. ' JUd tro~-nan: ee~ • 'stop rlght there.' thuug tro~ naa-og . 'Was hlt rlght In the chest.'

6. /taam/ or /tam/ 'along, followlng, accordlng to, from one to another of' wi~ paJ-tam-thanan • 'Run along the street.' phuud taam-pham • 'Say It after me. ' rWikiAdmin taam caD-wa. 'Slng accordlng to the rhythm. ' haa-syy tam-r~an • 'Shop for It from one store to the next. '

7. /thaaD/ or /thaD/ 'In the dlrectlon of, by way of' JUu thaaD-n;~g pratuu . 'It's somewhere outslde the door. ' l{aw thaD-s~aJ . 'Turn to the left. ' maa thaa~ mEE-n~am . 'Came by way of the rlver. ' paJ thaaD rya-bln • 'Go by plane. '

8. /thEEw/ or /th€w/ 'to or In the general vlclnlty of, near' len kan thEw-naa roo~-rlan • 'They play around the front of the school.' thEEw-baan pham mll J8 • 'There are a lot of them In my nelghborhood. '

9. /kab/ and /ka-/ 'wlth, wlth respect to, to' JUu klaJ kab-baan pham • 'It's near (wlth respect to) my house.' paJ kab-pham dll kwaa • 'Better go wlth me. ' faag naD-syy kab-phyan • 'Leave books wlth a frlend. ' haJ na~-syy kaphyan • 'G~ve books to a fr~end. ' (See also /ka-/ under 10. /kec/ and under m~scellaneous preposltlons,

10. /ke8/ or /ke/ and /ka/ 'toward, to, for' thy~ ke-kam lE8w • 'He ~s dead (has atta~ned to death).' haJ na~-syy ke-phyan . 'G~ve books to a fr~end.' daJ kec-khoo~ th~g-Jaa~ or: daJ kakhoo~ th~g-Jaa~ • 'Appl~es to all klnds of th~ngs. '

11. /t;o/ or /t;/ 'toward, ~n the presence of, d~str~but~vely to' phuud t;o-naa khaw • 'Say ~t to h~s face.' Jyyn taa t;-taa . 'Stand eye to eye. ' Before metrlc classlflers and numeral phrases, /t;o/ means 'per': haa-s~b klloo-m~d t;o chua-moo~ . 'Flfty kllometers per hour. '

12. /khE8/ 'StOpplng at, gOlng no further than' paJ khE8 wa~-lua~ • 'Goes only as far as the palace. ' (Also a member of the /dooJ/-class,

13. /S3J/ 'lnto, at so as to hlt.' faJ-ch~g tog s3J-caan tecg . 'The l~ghter fell ~nto the d~sh and broke It. I J llJ sa J ton-m~a J • 'Shoot at a tree.'

14. /pracam/ 'located at, assoclated wlth' pen thuud pracam kru~-theeb • 'He's a dlplomat statl0ned ln Bangkok.' There lS no 1nternal order for the class, but spec1f1c comb1nat1ons of members occur, w1th1n the class and outs1de, Wh1Ch are better cons1dered as slngle lexemesl /thYlJ- kab/ 4 9 /taam-thl1/ 6 3 /trolJ- khaam/ 5 /lalJ-caag/ 1 /talJ- t Ee/ 2 /thYlJ-kh8e/ 4 12 'to the p01nt of' 'accord1ng to' 'Oppos1te, r1ght across from' 'after' 'slnce' 'only to the p01nt of'

The class cons1sts of prepos1tlons Wh1Ch occur before, and 1n constructlon wlth, both noun and verb express1ons. Most members, 1n fact, occur before whole clauses as /thaa/-class conJunctlons (4.3.2.). The class meanlng 1S 'temporal, spat1al or loglcal cond1t1on,' and the result1ng phrases funct10n syntact1cally as complements. L1ke /thamaJ/-class complement1ves, for Wh1Ch /dooJ/-1ntroduced prepos1t1onal phrases freely Subst1tute, the phrases are reverslble w1th respect to the head const1tuents; the only d1fference 1n mean1ng 1S a sllght change of emphas1s. The class 1S open, and qU1te large, conta1n1ng many nearly-synonymous members.

Follow1ng are the most 1mportant members, w1th the1r approx1mate mean1ngs. 1. 2. 3. 6. 7. /mya/ or /mya/ /koon/ or /kon/ /welaa/ and /toon/ or /ton/ /phoo/ or /pho/ /con-thYlJ/ or /con-thYlJ/ and /con-krathalJ/ / JalJ/ /lalJ-caag/ or /lalJ-cag/ I a t the t 1me 0f ' 'before' 'dur1ng the t1me of, at or 1n (a part of the day)' 'as soon as the t1me of' 'unt1l, up to the t1me of, up to the p01nt of' 'to, to an end-po1nt of' 'after' 9. /noog-caag/ or /noog-cag/ 10. /w~n/ and /w~n-tec/ 11. /rawaalJ/ 12. /tal;od-con/ 13. /JaalJ/ or /JalJ/ 14. /chen/ 15. /myan/ or /myan/ 16. /thaw/ or /thaw/ and /khec/ 17. /dooJ/ or /doJ/ 18. /duaJ/ or /daJ/ 19. /phro/ or /phr5/ 20. /nyalJ-caag/ or /nyalJ-cag/ 21. /phya/ 22. /sam-rab/ or /samrab/ and /suan/ 23. /chapho/ 24. /faaJ/ 25. /pen/ 26. /thccn/ or /then/ 27. /ryalJ/ 'slnce, all the way from, wlth beglnnlng member as' 'besldes, outslde of' 'except for' 'between, among, durlng the tlme of' 'lncludlng, wlth flnal member as' (Often follows 8. /talJ-tec/, In the meanlng 'everythlng from .•• to ... ,) 'llke, such as, In the manner of' 'llke, for example' (constructlon often closed wlth /pen-ton/) 'resembllng, llke' 'to the extent of' 'by means of, by the agency of' 'wlth, wlth the materlal of' 'because of' 'on account of' 'for the purpose of' 'for, as for, for the purpose of' 'dlrected toward, especlally for' 'on the part of, from the slde of' 'as, so as to become' 'lnstead of, so as to replace' 'on the subJect of'

Members of the /dooJ/-class normally exclude each other except lnsofar as they form slngle-lexeme compounds, for example: 'such as' Of all the members of the class llsted above, only a few can substltute for thelr typlcal phrases, and even these members occur by themselves only at the end of clauses, not at the beglnnlng, and hence are /eelJ/-class complementlves ( These are: 2. /k;on/ 'beforehand' But also, /k;on-nan/ 'before that' 153 18. /duaJ/ 'wlth It, In addltlon' But also, /duaJ-kan/ 'wlth each other, together' 26. /thEEn/ 'lnstead'

All other members form complement phrases or derlve complementlves by addltlon of obJects llke /n~n/ (e.g. 1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16) or /kan/ (e.g. 15, 16, 18) or /n{l/ (e.g. 2, 3, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 16 /khee/) wlth varlOUS meanlngs. There are also a few hlghly lrregular derlved complementlves: 4· /pho-dll/ 'Just now, Just then' 14. /chen-dlaw-kan/ 'In the same way' 19. /phr5-chan~n/ 'for that reason' 21. /phya/ 'for a purpose, In reserve' (note change of tone) 23. /dooJ-chaph~/ 'especlally'

Two addltlonal members of thls class whlch requlre speclal treatment, /haJ/ and /aw/, are llsted wlth the mlscellaneous preposltlons ( These preposltlons belong to none of the precedlng classes but are weak-stressed forms of verbs (mostly completlve verbs, 3.3.4.) whlch occur before nouns In the typlcal preposltlonal constructlon. They do not normally occur before verbs or lntroduce clauses. The class meanlng, lS 'route or tlmlng of motlon or dlstrlbutlon'. The resultlng phrases can all be substltuted for by the correspondlng free form wlth normal stress. The class lS not large, but presumably open, Slnce any completlve verb lS a candldate for membershlp. Phrases lntroduced by /roob/-class prepOSltlons, especlally 5-10, are rnore frequently negated than any other type of preposltlonal phrase. Followlng are some lmportant members. deen khaam-thanon

2. /tro~-khaam/ tro~-khaam karoo~-na~ 3. /roob/ and /rob-roob/ na~ roob-t6 'across, over on the other slde, of' 'walk across the street' 'It's across the street.' 'dlrectly across from, Opposlte' 'Opposlte the theatre~ 'around, completely clrcllng' 'seated around the table' 4. /3om/ and /3m-3om/ deem 30m-to • 5. /tal~od/ tal~od- thaalJ 6. /thua/ thua-loog • 7. /khrOb/ syy daJ khrob-ch~d • B. /mod/ 9. /phon/ phon-th~g 10. /than/ than rOd-faJ 11. /raJ/ or /raaJ/ and /praad-sacaag/ raJ h~ed-phon praad-sacaag khwaam-maaJ 12. /tem/ tem kamlalJ tem-naa 13. /tid/ 'around, detourlng, half-clrcllng' 'walk around the table (as a detour)' 'all the way through (one dlmenslon, as tlme or a road), from one end to the other' 'all through Ilfe' 'the whole way' 'throughout (two or three dlmenslons), pervadlng, allover' 'allover the world' 'completlng a set, the full amount of' 'able to buy the whole set' 'depletlng a set, the last blt of' 'every last blt of strength' 'beyond, past, clear of, free of' 'free of sorrow' 'In tlme for, catchlng up wlth' 'In tlme for the traln' 'wlthout, devold of' 'wlthout reason' 'wlthout meanlng' 'full of, fllllng up' 'at full strength' 'allover the face' 'stlcklng to, up agalnst' 'on the walls' 155 14. /too/ too faa-phanalJ too-r~a lOlJ-paJ 15. /thaw/ or /thaw/ 'Jolned to, extendlng from, In Ilne wlth' 'In Ilne wlth the wall' 'extendlng down from the fence'. 'to the extent or, equal to' 'as tall as hlS elder brother'

(Also a member of /dooJ/ class, The class conslsts of preposltlons WhlCh occur lmmedlately before, and In constructlon wlth, cardlnal numeral ( phrases. The class lncludes one set of members WhlCh are homonymous wlth /mag/-class modals (6, below) and these are the only members after WhlCh /ca-/ lntervenes before the numeral (~n tlme expresslons). The entlre constructlon In all cases lS stlll a cardlnal numeral constructlon, and non-negatable. The class meanlng of /sag/-preposltlons lS 'attltude toward the accuracy, slze, dlstrlbutlon, or lncluslveness of a numeral expresslon.' The class lS closed, and rather small; all common members are represented here. 'another, an addltlonal number of' khaw daJ-rab cOd-maaJ ilg-SQOlJ chabab • 'He recelved two more letters.' t5lJ khooJ ilg-sib wan. tWe have to walt another ten days. '

2. /thYlJ/ or /thalJ/ 'up to, a complete set of' aad-cat5lJ khooJ thYlJ-sib wan, k5-daJ • 'We may even have to walt the full ten days. ' khaw capaJs kan , thalJ-saam khon • 'All three of them are gOlng.'

3. /te-la/ and /khon-la/ 'each, dlfferent, ••• at a tlme' (Although /khon/ lS also a classlfler for persons, and /la/ a dlstrlbutlve postposltlon, descrlbed In 4.4.4., It lS clear that /khon-Ia/ lS a compound preposltlon of the /sag/ class, because, llke /te-la/, lt 1S used to refer to all types of nouns, not merely people.) Examples: khaw paJs kan , khon-la-thaalJ • 'They went off In dlfferent dlrectlons (each one way).' 156 aw te-la-so0~ an dll kw~a • 'It's better to take two of each. ' phid kan khon-la-J~a~ • 'Each klnd lS dlfferent. I

4. /thug-th~g/ 'every, at lntervals of' chaaJ thug-thug seam dyan • 'It lS shown every three months. ' (ThlS ltem, WhlCh lS a redupllcatlon of /th~g/, and ltem 3. above closely resemble the partltlve numerals descrlbed ln, but dlffer ln that they occur before cardlnal numerals, whereas partltlve numerals do not.)

5. /raaw/ or /raw-raaw/ and /pramaan/ 'approxlmately (tlme or quantlty)' and 'approxlmately (quantlty only) , khaaJ raakhaa pramaan haa-ro0J b~ad • 'It sells for approxlmately flve hundred baht. ' pham 00g caag thil-nan raw-raaw Sil thum • 'I left there at about ten p.m. ' caag nil , k5-raaw ny~-ro0J m~d 'It's about a hundred meters from here. '

6. /cuan/ or /cuan ca-/ and /kyab/ or /kyab ca-/ 'almost' pham kh00JI JUU , kYab-so0~ chua-moo~ • 'I was waltlng for almost two hours. ' cuan-casaam moo~ leEw • 'It's nearly three o'clock.'

7. /keen/, /keen-kwaa/ and /kw~a/ 'ln excess of' pham kh00JI JUU , keen-kw~a S00~ chua-moo~ • 'I was waltlng for over two hours. ' khaaJ raakhaa keen haa-ro0J b~ad . 'It sells for more than flve hundred baht. ' 8. /phla~/ and /phe~/ or /phy~/ 'only' khaaJ raakhaa phla~ haa-ro0J baadl thaw-nan 'It sells for only flve hundred baht. ' pham SyY daJ phla~-haa chabab • 'I was able to buy only flve coples.' ph8~ saam moo~ • 'It's only three o'clock.' khaw mll luug phla~-s00~ khon • ora khaw phy~-mll luug S00~ khon • 'She has only two chlldren.' (See also the modal /ph8~/, In 4.1.1. and 4.1.4.) 9. /ta~/ or /ta~/ 'all of, as much as, the surprlslngly hlgh number of' pham khoOJ: JUu , ta~-s00~ chua-moo~ 'I was waltlng for all of two hours. ' caag nil , k5-ta~ haa-r6o J m~d • 'It's at least flve hundred meters from here.' 10. /sag/ or /sag/ 'the lnexact number of, the unreal quantlty of' pham capaJ-syy na~-syY sag-s00~ lem 'I'm gOlng to buy a couple of books.' pham capaJ-syY na~-syy sag-lem • 'I'm gOlng to buy a book (unspeclf+ed)' khaw maJ-daJ-syy na~-syy sag-lem dlaw • 'He dldn't buy (so much as) a slngle book. I phoo deen paJ-daJ sag-haa naathll , 'After he had been walklng along for perhaps flve mlnutes .•. I Two /sag/-class preposltlons In sequence are not uncommon. The class conslsts of palrs of semantlc 0pposltes whlch Ilmlt the actual posslbllltles - for example, members of groups 1-2, 3-4, 5-8, and 9-10 exclude each other lnternally; /keen/ lS followed only by /ta~/ and /phla~/ only by /sag/. Examples of actual comblnatlons follow. The lmmedlate constltuents are always A/BC. llg pramaan sib khon • 'Approxlmately ten more people. ' thy~ kyab-sll chua-moo~ • 'Nearly four whole hours.' keen ta~ haa-r~oJ baad • 'Even more than flve hundred baht. I _ v , phla~ sag-sWikiAdmin med . 'Only about two meters. ' kyab ta~ so~~-r~~J m~d • 'Almost as much as two hundred meters. '

Mlscellaneous Preposltlons

These two preposltlons, whlch as preposltlons are members of the /dooJ/ class, each have homonYms belonglng to several other form-classes. The two are llsted here together because they share a number of constructlons and have a common meanlng: 'transfer of possesslon or lnstrumentallty.' The constructlons ares

1. Post-verbal phrase IhaJ/ 'to or for someone, havlng an lntentlonal effect on somethlng' /aw/ 'to or at somethlng, havlng an unlntentlonal effect on somethlng' Jyyn haJ phan~g-~aan • 'Hand It to the clerk.' m88W takhuJ aw-sya • 'The cat sharpened ltS claws on the mat. ' saa~ thamn~b haJ-n~am thuam • 'Bullt a dam for floodlng. ' ('Bullt a dam to make It flood. ,) lawl lS very common after verbs of holdlng and grasplng: J~b aw-pag-kaa • 'Plck up the pen.' fon t~g aw-naam thuam • 'It ralned and floodlng resulted. ' ('The raln made It flood. ,)

2) Pre-verbal phrase /haJ/ 'wlth the (human or anlmate) agency of' lawl 'wlth the (lnanlmate) lnstrument of' m88-khrua haJ-deg tad nya pen-ch{n • 'The cook has the chlld cut the meat lnto sllces.' 159 mEE-khrua aw-ml1d tad nya pen-ch{n • 'The cook uses a kn1fe to cut the meat 1nto sllces.' Apart from the order of the preposltlonal phrase (before the verb), these construct1ons correlate w1th those of /dooJ/-class prepos1t10ns. Compare the follow1ng: , aw-maaJ tham . 'Make 1t w1th wood. ' tham dua J-maa J . 'Make 1t w1th wood. ' aw r6d-Jon paJ . 'Go by car . , paJ dooJ r~d-Jon . 'Go by car. ,

3. As /waJ/-class postpos1t1ons (4.4.1.) HomonYms of the two prepos1t10ns occur unstressed after verbal phrases wlthout any obJect. L1ke a few members of the /dooJ/-class (2,18, 26), th1S lS a case of Subst1tut10n for the typ1cal prepos1t1onal phrase Introduced by that member. But Slnce /haJ/ and /aw/ as postpos1tlons occur In m1xed order w1th members of the /waJ/-class, they are asslgned to th1S class rather than to the /ee~/-class, the members of Wh1Ch they always precede. As a postpos1tlon, /haJ/ never has the form /haJ/. /haJ/ 'to or for someone else' /aw/ 'for oneself, for ltself l keb d;og-maaJ: haJ . 'Plck flowers for them' keb d;og-maaJ: aw • 'P1ck flowers for themselves' 'They plck them for each other. ' 'They p1ck them for others. ' 'They p1ck them for the(mse 1ve s (as a group) '. 'The p1ck them for themselves (as 1nd1v1duals) '. keb: kan aw • khaw caJYYm haJ: i1g • 'He's gOlng to lend 1t (to others) as well. I khaw maJ-daJ-b;og pham t pham dawl aw ee~ • 'He d1dn't tell me. I guessed 1t for myself. ' In assoclat10n w1th the plural pronoun /kan/, lt lS 1mportant to d1st1ngu1sh whether /haJ/ and /aw/ occur as preposlt10ns or postpos1tlons. keb haJ-kan . keb: kan ha J . keb aw-kan • 160

4. As conJunctlons Both /haJ/ and /aw/ o~cur before subJect-predlcate constructlons, as conJunctlons of the /sy~/-class (4.3.3.), wlth the common meanlng 'change of subJect.' In many cases thlS lS an extenslon of thelr preposltlonal use In post-verbal phrases, llke the occurrences of /dooJ/-class preposltlons as /thaa/-class conJunctlons (4.3. 2 .). /haJ/ 'so that, WhlCh lS supposed to' /aw/ 'so that, WhlCh accldentally' khaw aw luug-boon , khwaa~ haJ khoom-taD tog. 'He took the ball and threw lt at the lamp to make lt fall. ' ('so that the lamp would fall. ,) khaw aw luug-boon , khwaaD aw khoom-taD tog • 'He threw the ball and lt knocked down the lamp. ' ('In such a way that the lamp fell. ,) In both examples, the flrst /aw/ lS a preposltlon (see above), 'he threw wlth the ball,' though /khwaaD/ lS also transltlve. A slmllar use, also common to /dooJ/-class preposltlons, lS occurrence before adJectlves: tll man haJ-rcD-rccD: na • 'Beat lt hard, wlll you~' man tll chan aw-rcD-rccD • 'It hlt me hard. '

5. As Maln Verbs Llke IwaJ/-class postposltlons, /haJ/ and /aw/ occur, stressed, as prlmary verbs. In the examples below, the maln verb lS underllned. haJ sataaD: paJ (daJ sataaD: maa maa-haJ sataaD paJ-aw sataaD ~ maa-haJ 'to glve' 'to take, to choose' 'to glve money away' 'to recelve money') Ito take the money away' 'to brlng the money' 'to come and glve money' 'to go get money' 'to brlng for someone' haJ paJ-~ aw paJ-haJ haJ maa-aw haJ sataa~: aw-wsJ ~ sataa~: wSJ-haJ 'to have someone go get' 'to take to someone' 'to have someone COme get' 'to glve money for a future purpose' 'to keep money on hand for someone'

2. /t£8/ or /te/ and /con/ These preposltlons, of Opposlte meanlng, share some,but not all constructlons wlth each other. Baslcally they are both members of the /caag/ class (4. 2•2, numbers 2 and 4, respectlvely), but both occur In compound preposltlons of the /dooJ/ class (,10,12) and In other compound lexemes. Besldes thelr baslc meanlngs, /te8/ 'startlng from' and /con/ 'up to' have quantlty-related meanlngs whlch are the exact equlvalents of two /sag/-class (4.2.5.) preposltlons, /sag/ 'as Ilttle as' and /ta~/ 'as much as,' respectlvely. These occur only In numeral phrases; /te8/ and /con/ replace them elsewhere. Followlng are some examples of these other constructlons. In the flrst two cases, only one of the palr of preposltlons occurs, and the constructlons are mlrror lmages of each other. 1) Between a verb and ltS obJect: /te8/ 'only' kln tEE nya-muu aw te- kln kln nya-muu te-nooJ 'eats only pork' 'wants only to eat' 'there are only a few' 'stays only In the nest' 'eats only a llttle meat' ch50b tB-JUU naJ-ra~ 'llkes only to stay In the nest' In thls constructlon, /te8/ occurs before all types of obJects, lncludlng sUbstantlves, predlcatlves, expresslons, and phrases. It lS characterlstlcally echoed wlth /thaw-nsn/ at the end of ltS phrase, or at the end of the clause.

2) Between a verb and a completlve verb or adJectlve: /con/ 'flnally. all the way to' haa con-da J haa con-thua khwaa~ con- da J 'flnally found' 'looked everywhere' 'swam untll exhausted' 'flnally hlt by throwlng' In all such construct1ons, the f1rst constltuent lS a trans1t1ve verb and the second an adJect1ve or complet1ve verb. In slm1lar pred1cat10ns 1nvolv1ng a substant1ve as f1rst constltuent, the conJunct1on /cy~/ ( lS used 1nstead of /con/: pham cYlJ-pa J • sll-khlaw thYlJ-cad11 . 'I flnally went' 'Only green lS good. ' 3) As conJunct1ons, the two ltems st1ll contrast sharply: /tEE/ /con/ 'but'(/dlaw/ class, 4.3.1.) 'unt11, although' (/thaa/ class, 4.3.2.)

chan boag leEw: waa , chan maJ-ch5ab sll-khiaw , teE khaw JalJ-khyyn syy maa-i1g con-daJ • 'I had told h1m that I d1dn't 11ke green, but he st1ll ended up bUy1ng green aga1n anyway. ' con chan boag leEw: waa , chan maJ-ch5ab sll-khlaw , khaw k5-JalJ khyyn syy maa-i1g con-daJ • 'Although I had told h1m I d1dn't 11ke green, he st1ll ended up bUy1ng green aga1n anyway. ' khaw daJ-rab kaan-rag-saa Jaa~-d11 , con-phon kheed an-taraaJI leEw . 'He rece1ved excellent care unt1l he was past the dangerous stage. ' khaw daJ-rab kaan-rag-saa J$alJ-d11 , t~E naJ roou-phaJaa-baan: thaw-nan. 'He rece1ved excellent care, but only 1n the hosp1tal. ' 3. /ka-/ and /ca-/ Each of these two preposlt1ons occurs 1n close Juncture w1th the other const1tuent of 1tS phrase (or w1th the f1rst syllable of the const1tuent 1f 1t lS pclysyllab1c). They are the only prepos1t1ons Wh1Ch have no stressed forms 1n conversat1onal style, although each lS Subst1tuted for by stressed forms 1n c1tat1on and 1n formal style: /ka-/ lS replaced by /kab/ or /kEE/, and /ca-/ by /ca/.

1) /ka-/ occurs excluslvely before substantlve expreSSlons: nouns, pronouns, demonstratlves, numerals (but not classlflers), and phrases of all these types. Its meanlng lS 'In relatlon to, , and lt frequently follows other preposltlons and a few verbs and adJectlves. It also has a covert relatlonshlp wlth the pronoun /kan/ 'In relatlon to each other, as a group,' WhlCh can replace most /ka-/ phrases. Slnce /ka-/ follows all other preposl tlons, 1 ts occurrence alone (Wl thout other pr'eposl tlons) lS lnterpreted as an lnstance of a /caag/-class preposltlon. As such, lt can replace /k£E/ and /kab/ In all thelr uses (see examples under, 10.). Examples: paJ kakhun thYlJ kasanaam t;o ka thEEW trolJ kana-likaa , JaalJ kakhaw 'go Wl th you' 'up to the fleld ' 'In extenslon of the row' 'rlght wlth the clock' 'llke hlm' pa J: kan thYlJ: kan t;o: kan trolJ: kan 'go together' 'meetlng' 'In Ilne' 'In agreement' myan kakhaw duaJ kaphom haJ kaphom trolJ-khaam kabaan klaJ kabaan khlalJ kabaan thaw kas80lJ thllug kakhaw 'llke hlm' m"yan: kan 'wlth me' duaJ: kan 'to me' haJI kan 'Opposlte the trolJ-khaam: house' 'near the house' klaJ: kan 'next to the house' khlalJ: kan 'equlvalent to two' thaw: kan 'In harmony wlth thllug: kan them' 'llke each other' 'together I 'reclprocally' kan 'Opposlte each other' 'near together' 'next to each otm r' 'to the same degree I 'In harmony' phid kakhaw kiaw kalJaan 'dlfferent from them' 'concerned wlth work' phid: kan kiaw: kan 'rela ted' phr~om kakhruu khl~a J kakhruu 'at the same tlme phr~om: kan as the teachers' lresembllng khl~aJ: kan teachers'

'slInultaneous ' 'Slmllar' Examples:

2) /ca-/ occurs before pred1cat1ve express1ons, espec1ally before verbs, adJect1ves, modals (other than /m~g/-class) and some modal verbs and the1r phrases, and 1S also common before enumerat10ns and equat10nal pred1cates. It 1S extremely common after /m~g/-class modals (4.1.2.) and some modal verbs (3.3.1. 1,5-9). Its mean1ng 1S 'hypothet1cal sltuat10n or putat1ve act1on, rand 1t 1S used both for future states and for unreal or reconstructed present-past states. Slnce the order of /ca-/ w1th respect to modals and modal verbs 1S ent1rely f1xed, the occurrence of /ca-/ w1thout modal elements present 1S best 1nterpreted as an 1nstance of a spec1al bound modal (belong1ng to a class of one), /ca-I. (see Phrases 1ntroduced by /ca-/ cannot be replaced by any slngle lexeme (as can /ka-I-phrases), but 1t 1S 1nterest1ng to note that /ca-/ and the sentence part1cle Ithe/ 'Let's, why not' ( seem to exclude each other semant1cally, although the1r pos1t1ons 1n the clause are qU1te d1fferent. khaw capaJ-duaJ • khaw capaJ-daJ Jaa~-raJ • 'He's gOlng to go along.' 'How could he go (have gone)~' diaw khaw capaJ . 'He's gOlng soon.' (/paJ/ 18 a verb.) khaw cat5~ paJ . khaw Jaag capaJ-duaJ . khaw cakh88J paJ mya-raJ t. 'He'll have to go.' 'He wants to go along. ' 'When would he ever have gone~' (/t5~/, /Jaag/, and /kh88J/ are modal verbs.) khaw aad capaJ k5-d8J . khaw kho~ capaJ: J~U-18EW . khaw kamla~ capaJ: J~U-18EW . 'He m1ght even go. ' 'He must have gone already.' 'He's about to go already.' (/aad/, /kho~/, and /kamla~/ are /m~g/-class modals.) khaw camaJ-paJ: lama~ • khaw cakhyyn paJ thamaJ .

'Maybe he's not go~ng.' 'Why would he be gOlng 1n sp1te of everyth1ng~' (/maJ/ and /khyyn/ represent thelr own classes of modals.) na~ thll-nll casaduagl kwaa • 'Slttlng here would be more comfortable.' khyn rod-mee cachaa: paJ-n;oJ • 'Taklng the bus would be a Ilttle too slow.' (/sad~ag/ and /chaa/ are adJectlves.) ilg haa-nathll casoa~ moo~ • 'In flve mlnutes It'll be two o'clock.' (I t 's fl ve to two.) , khaw cakhaa-hag da J Jaa~-ra J '. 'How could he get a broken leg~ I (/SOO~ moo~/ lS an enumeratlon and /khaa-hag/ lS an equatlonal predlca te. )

4. /kwaa/, /kh;o~/, and /hEE~/ These three preposltlons are members of the /caag/ class (4.2.2.). whlch commonly occur In rather speclal envlronments, and also have homonyms whlch belong to speclal classes. They occur excluslvely before substantlve expresslons and, In the deflnltlve /caag/-class context, before /naJ/-class preposltlons.

1) /kwaa/ or /kwa/ 'more than' lS almost entlrely restrlcted to occurrence after adJectlves and adJectlve phrases. Its homonym, /kwaa/ 'more,' lS a/nag/-class postposltlon (4.4.2.) whlch' ,substltutes for all /kwaa/-phrases. Examples: roon kwa- na J- baan 'hotter than In the house' , roon kwaa 'hotter' chaa kwaa-phom: , Ja~ llg 'even slower than me' Ja~ chaa kwa- ilg 'even slower' , Ja J kwa-d88m 'blgger than before' , Ja J kwaa 'blgger' dll kwa-phyan 'better than the others' dll kwaa 'better'

2) /kh;o~/ or /kh5~/ and /h2E~/ or /h2~/ 'of, belonglng to' as preposltlons are almost entlrely restrlcted to occurrence before substantlve expresslons, although a few adJectlves can 166 Examplest have a /kho0~/-phrase modlfylng them (see last examples In sectl0n). The substantlve followlng /khQa~/ normally has person, anlmal, or small obJect as referent, whl1e that followlng /h88~/ has a large obJect, place, or abstractl0n as referent. Phrases lntroduced by /khQa~/ and /h88~/ commonly modlfy substantlves (usually nouns), but lf the head-noun lS mlsslng the phrase stl11 operates syntactlcally as a substantlve, and caL fl11 the tOP1C, sUbJect, object, or complement posltlon. In fact, Slnce one of the meanlngs of the constructl0n 'head noun H plus modlfler nounM' 18 already 'the H of M,' the preposltl0ns /khQa~/ and /h88~/ more often ~ean 'that of' than slmply 'of' 1. e. they are more freoQent when the head noun lS mlsslng. khQa~-phom sanaam hE8~-chaad phlee~ chaad hE8~-chaad 'My book (book of me) , 'My book' 'Mlne (that of me) , 'Natlonal Stadlum (stad1um of nat1on) , 'nat1onal anthem' 'the nat1on's' Both prepos1t1ons have homonyms Wh1Ch are nouns: /kh00DI 'th1ng' and /hE8~/ 'place.' Nelther noun, by 1tself, Substltutes for the correspond1ng type of prepos1t1onal phrase, but as normal-stressed head nouns wlth mod1f1ers both occur 1n d1rect semant1c contrast w1th the homonymous (weak-stressed) prepos1t1on plus 1tS complement. Compare the follow1ng: 'They gave my th1ngs away. ' (Noun /kha0D/) 'They gave m1ne away.' (Prepos1t1on /khaaD/) Where 1nd1rect obJects are 1nvolved, there lS an 1mportant contrast between /k88/ 'to, for' and /khaa~/ 'of, I the head no~n-mod1f1er noun construct1on be1ng amb1guous 1n th1S case. Examples. khaw haJ D8n phom: paJ . 'They gavE" my money away. , or 'They gave the money away to me. I khaw haJ ~8n kh5~-phom, paJ 'They gave my money away. 1 khaw haJ ~8n kE-phom: paJ . 'They gave the money away to me. I 167 Addltlonal examples of all types. kh~o~-phom JUu nll • kh~o JYym kh~o~-khun • 'Mlne lS here. ' 'Lend me yours. ' koo~-thab hE~ prath8Ed-thaJ JaJ kwaa • 'The army of Thalland lS la~ger. ' hEE~ pratheed-thaJ JaJ kwaa 'Thalland's lS larger. ' an-na J kh~o~ khaw • kh~o~ kh5~-khaw haaJ: paJ-mod • phyan kh~o~ phyan-phom • thuug kh~o~ khaw . 'WhlCh one lS hlS7' 'Hls thlngs all dlsappeared.' 'A frlend of a frlend of mlne. r 'He lS rlght.' (Llt. 'rlght of hlm.' /thuug/ lS an adJectlve. /kh~o~/ and /hEE~/ follow /kwaa/ when they lntroduce a non-modlfYlng phrase; otherwlse the three preposltlons exclude each other. dll kwaa kh~o~-khun • 'It's better than yours. r


A conJunctlon lS any bound lexeme WhlCh occurs as a prlor constltuent In a syntactlc constructlon WhlCh has a whole predlcatlon as co-constltuent. Just as modals (4.1.) lntroduce predlcatlve expresslons, and preposltlons (4.2.) lntroduce substantlve expreSSlons, conJunctlons lntroduce entlre predlcatlons wlthout belng able to substltute for them - l.e. the constructlon rconJunctlon plus predlcatlon' lS exocentrlc. There lS some overlap between the membershlps of the preposltlon and conJunctlon classes, lnvolvlng especlally the /thaa/ sub-class (4.3.2.). One klnd of conJunctlon (/cy~/ class, 4.3.4.) actually follows the subJect of ltS predlcatlon, rather than precedlng It, but thls lS a clear case of dlscontlnuous order, Slnce the lmmedlate constltuent analysls lS the same as In the case of other conJunctlons. Except for the open /thaa/ sub-class (4.3.2.), the class of conJunctlons lS small and closed. Many of lts members, however, are among the most frequent lexemes In the language.

/diaw/ Class

The class conslsts of conJunctlons WhlCh occur In absolute lnltlal posltlon (comlng even before /ba~-een/ and /thamaJ/-class complementlves, 3.2.2.) In clauses WhlCh 1) come flrst In a serles of clauses, and 2) are In open clause Juncture (1.2.8. end). The second stlpulatlon lS necessary to dlstlngulsh /diaw/- conJunctlons from /thaa/- and /sy~/- conJunctlons (4.3. 2 , 3.), whlch are otherwlse ldentlcal In syntactlc functlon. The class meanlng lS 'temporal or loglcal correlatlon wlth precedlng message (whlch may be a clause, sentence, utterance by another speaker, or nonverbal behavlor).' Clauses lntroduced by /diaw/-class conJunctlons, therefore, may occur ln any part of an utterance. The conJunctlon ltself lS frequently separated from the rest of ltS clause by phrase boundary. The class lS small and closed, conslstlng only of the followlng elght members, plus two dlscontlnuous lexemes WhlCh can also be classlfled as modals (,4.) other forms flttlng the deflnltlon but not recorded here are varlants of one of the mem~ers. All members, In at least one of thelr forms, occur as members of other classes. 1. /diaw/ and /pradiaw/ 'In a moment, soon, (be careful) or else, otherwlse' pradiaw , khaw khoD camaa • rDD ~lg-sag-khruu , daJ: maJ • 'He's sure to be here soon. Can you walt a Ilttle longer~' diaw , chan capaJ-aw maa-haJ .

'I'll go get lt for you ln a moment.' ',.. , tv, , Jaa wlD rewa nag dlaw hog: mod 'Don't run so fast, or you'll splll lt all.'

2. /leEw/ and /l~w-kSD/ or /le/ and /l~-kSD/ 'then, after that, and' 'and, then' leEW pham capaJ syy khOD~. khun caklab baan: rY-DaJ . 'Then I'm gOlng shopplng. Are you gOlng to go home, or what?' lew-kSD laa wi~ khaw-paJ paJ-paa • 'And then the donkey ran lnto the forest.' pham carlan na~-syy , Ie faD phEEn-sia~: sag-n;DJ duaJ • 'I'm gOlng to study, and 11sten to some records, too.'

3. /ryy/ or /ry/ and /ry-waa/ 'or, alternatlvelYJ lf not, then' rJ-waa , tham Ja~{l dlll maJ • maJ-sia welaa maag • 'Or shall we do It thlS w~y? It won't take much tlme. ' pham carlan na~-syy , ry fa~ pbEEn-sia~ sag-n;DJ k5-daJ 'I'm gOlng to study, or maybe llsten to some muslc.' ryy haJ khaw klab paJ-k;Dn dll kwaa: ma~ . 'Or perhaps we'd better let hlm go back flrst.' 169

4. /khyy/ and /khy-waa/ and /k3-khyy/ 'or In other words, that lS to say' khyy , khaw pen nag-rlan: nl khrab • khaw maJ-daJ-pen khruu • '(What I meant to say was) he's a student, you see. He's not a teacher.' khyy raw t3D-JUU naJ-h3D tal;od-welaa • 'In other words, we have to stay In the room the whole tlme.' khaw pen s~ed-thil . khy-waa , khaw pen khon ruaJ maag.. 'He's a rlch man - that lS to say, he's very wealthy.'

5. /tr,8/ or /tE/ and /tE-waa/ and /tE-k3o/ 'but, on the other hand' tE-waa , khaw pen nag-rlan: Pl khrab . khaw maJ-daJ-pen khruu • 'But he's a student, you see. Hefs not a teacher. I te-kSo pham t3D klab baan diaw-n{l: eeD • 'But I have to go home rlght away. ' khaw pen s~ed-thil , k5-ClD: JUu t tEE pen khon caJ-dll: myan-kan . 'It's true that he's a rlch man, but on the other hand he's good-hearted. '

6. /k3o/ or /k5/ 'Well, why, don't you know that' (Often followed by sentence partlcle /nil/.) k30 khaw pen nag-rlant ni khrab t . khaw maJ-daJ-pen khruu t . 'Why, he's a studentJ He's not a teacherJ' k30 pham khil-kiad: thaw-nan nil • 'Well, I'm Just lazy, that's all.' , 1"01 V A " tham JaDDll , ko phom maJ-waa araJ . 'If (you want to) do It thlS way, well, I don't mlnd a blt. ' 7. /188J/ or /18J/ 'then, that belng the case, so' 188J khun t3D klab baan diaw-n{l: eeD ryy . 'In that case you have to go home rlght away, do you~ 188J pham capaJ syy kh~OD . khun caklab baan: rJ-DaJ . 'So I'm gOlng shopplng. Are you gOlng home, or wpat~' 8. /con/ 'by thls tlme, It'S come to the pOlnt that' con pham maJ-ruu catham-JaDaJ dll . lItIs come to the pOlnt that I don't know what to do.'

Internal order of the class 1S compl1cated by the fact that the slxth and seventh members, /k3o/ and /leeJ/, have homonyms Wh1Ch belong to the /cy~/-class (a class of conJunct1ons Wh1Ch follow the subJect, 4.3.4.). In clauses Wh1Ch have no subJect, the /k3o/ 1S amb1guous, unless 1t 1S followed by /nl1/ and thus marked as belong1ng to the /dlaw/-class. Examples: k5-d11: myan-kan khr~b . 'Well, that would be f1ne. ' 'That, too, would be f1ne.' leJ haaJ paJ-mod . '30 1t all d1sappeared. ' lAs m1ght be expected, 1t all d1sappeared. ' (/dlaw/-class) (/cy~/-class) (/dlaw/-class) (/cy~/-class)

Members of sets ~-2, 3-4, and 5-8 exclude each other semant1cally, w1th the comb1nat1on /k5-leeJ/ apparently occurr1ng only when both 6 and 7 are members of the /cy~/-class. The 1nternal order lS 5-6, 3-4, 1-2; 7-8 are not known to occur 1n comb1nat1on, cases of 6-7 follow1ng 1-2 or 3-4 belng lnterpreted as the1r /cy~/-class homonyms. Examples: k30 , dlaw fan tog • 6 1 'Well, 1t'S gOlng to ra1n 1n a moment.' t~e , khKY pham pen samaa-ch{g . 'But, you see, I'm a member.' khyy , dlaw hog: mod . 4 1 'In other words, otherw1se 1t'11 sp1ll.' 18ew , leeJ k1ab baan • 2 'Then, as mlght be expected, he went home. ' dlaw , k5-haaJ paJ-mod . 1 lIn a moment 1t wlll all d1sappear, too.' In the last two examples, /le~J/ and /k5-/ are members of the /cy~/class. 171 The class conslsts of conJunctlons WhlCh occur In absolute lnltlal posltlon In clauses WhlCh 1) come flrst In a serles Df clauses, 2) are In close clause Juncture, and 3) functlon syntactlcally as complementlves (not l nouns). The class meanlng lS 'temporal or loglcal condltlon on another clause (WhlCh lS usually the one lmmedlately followlng, less often the one precedlng),' and Engllsh equlvalents of the members are often subordlnate conJunctlons. Llke /thamaJ/-class complementlves (, for WhlCh they freely substltute, clauses lntroduced by /thaa/-class conJunctlons are reverslble wlth respect to thelr head constltuents; the only dlfference In meanlng lS a sllght change In emphasls (see example under 1. /thaa/ ltself). When the clause lntroduced by the /thaa/-class conJunctlon precedes the head-clause, t~e conJunctlon ltself may follow a /diaw/-class (4.3.1.) conJunctlon (e.g. /teE thaa •.. / 'But If ... I). Otherwlse, /thaa/-class conJunctlons always come flrst In thelr clauses (See flrst two examples under 1. /thaa/).

The class lS falrly large and probably open, Slnce It lncludes many homonYmS of /dooJ/- class preposltlons, an open class (4.2.3.). No member belongs dlscretely to the /thaa/ class, wlth the exceptlon of morphologlcally complex varlants such as 2. /tha~-tha~-thll/and /thY~-meE-waa/. For example,

1. /thaa/ ltself has a homonYm WhlCh lS a /mag/-class modal (4.1.2.). The ltems Ilsted below are the most common members, and a few representatlve /dooJ/-preposltlon types have also been lncluded. 1. /thaa/ 'If ' /haag/ and /thaa-haag/ and /thaa-haag-waa/ 'If (on the contrary) , If (unexpectedly) , If only' /phya/ and /thaa-phya/ and /thaa-phya-waa/ 'If, In case' teE thaa khun maJ-paJ , pham capaJ-daJ Jaa~-raJ • 'But If you don't go, how can I go~' tEE pham capaJ-daJ Jaa~-raJ t thaa khun maJ-paJ • 'But how can I go, If you don't go~' thaa-haag mll r~d , pham ko-capaJ daJ 'If only I had a car, I could go. ' thaa-phya pham mll r~d , pham ko-capaJ daJ • 'If I have a car, I'll be able to go.'

2. /thy~/ or /thy~/ and /thy~-haag/ 'even lf, although' /thy~-m~E-waa/ and mEEn-waa/ 'even lf It should come to the pOlnt that' /tha~-tha~-thll/and /con/ 'although It has come to the pOlnt that' thy~ khaw capaJ , pham ko-maJ-paJ: myan-kan • 'Even lf he goes, I'm not gOlng.' th~~ chan camaJ-cho0b khaw , chan ko-phuud dll kakhaw . 'Although I don't llke hlm, I say nlce thlngs of hlm. ' V ~ A V , V ~ ~ thy~-m~E-waa phom camll rod , phom k0-maJ-paJ 'Even lf I had a car, I wouldn't go.' tha~-tha~-thil fan tog, khaw kO-Ja~ 00g paJ-thiaw, ilg • 'Although It was ralnlng, he went out anyway. '

3. /mya/ /to0-mya/ /naJ-mya/ 'when' 'only when, only lf' 'at a tlme when' mya pham mll r~d , pham ko-capaJ daJ • 'When I have a car, 1 '11 be able to go.' pham kheeJ paJ bOJ-bOJ , mya pham mll r~d • 'I went often when I had a car.' khaw b00g waa , khaw capaJ t00-mya pnam paJ • 'He sald he would go only lf I went. ' thammaJ khun 00g paJ-khaa~-no0g , naJ-mya fan kamla~ tog: JUU • 'Why are you gOlng out (at a tlme) when lt'S ralnlng~'

4. /wee-1aa/ and /naJ-we1aa/ 'when, whlle' /rawaa~/ and /naJ-rawaa~/ 'whlle' wee-laa khaw pen n~g-rlan , khaw kheeJ paJ bOJ-boJ • 'Whlle he was a student he went often. I deg-deg paJ-ded d00g-m~aJ , naJ-rawaa~ khon-tham-suan maJ-Juu • 'Ghlldren go and plck flowers whlle the gardener lS not there.' k00n r~d pham s1a , pham kheeJ paJ bOJ-bOJ • 'Before my care broke down, I used to go often. I khun khuan carlan na~-syy: sag-nooJ , koon-thll cakhaw noon. 'You ought to study a Ilttle, before gOlng to bed. '

6. /phoo/ 'as soon as, by the tlme that' phoo raw paJ-thy~ thll-nan , raw ca-aab-naam daJ . 'As soon as we get there, we'll be able to bathe.' phoo khaw daJ-Jln Ja~an , khaw tyyn than-thll • 'The moment he heard that, he woke up. '

7. /kwaa/ and /con-kwaa/ 'untll such tlme as, by the tlme that' Clause usually has no subJect, and predlcate 1S preceded by /ca-/ kwaa capaJ-thy~ thll-nan , k5-mYyd. leEw . 'By the t1me we get the.L'e, lt'll be dark already.' tham Ja~{l ryaJ: paJ , con-~aa cahaaJ . 'Keep on dOlng thls untll 1t heals. '

8. /con/ and /con-thy~/ and /con-kratha~/ 'untll, to the pOlnt that' chan waaJ-naama sa con myaJ paJ-mod tha~-tua • 'I swam untll I was completely worn out. ' khaw chaaJ paJ-Ja~{l con-kratha~ sataa~ khaw mods paJ-leeJ . 'He kept on spendlng llke thlS untll all hlS money was used up. '

9. /la~-caag/ /ta~-tee/ 'after, later than the tlme that' 'slnce, contlnulng from the tlme that' la~-caag rab-prathaan aahaan , phom keed puad-th~o~: khyn-maa • 'After eatlng, I got a stomach ache. ' taD-tee rab-prathaan aahaans maa , phom puad-th~oD ryaJ • 'Ever Slnce eatlng, I have had a stomach ache. '

10. /noog-caag/ 'except that, unless' Clause usually has no subJect, and predlcate lS usually preceded by /ca-/. nag-rlan ko-klab baan daJ: leeJ , noog-caag camll ~aan phis~ed haJ-tham . 'The students can go rlght home, unless there lS speclal work to be done.'

11. /Jaa~/ and /Jaa~ ka-/ 'llke, as' /myan ka-/ 'as If' Jaa~ khun waa , pen an-taraaJ maag • 'As you say, It's very dangerous.' khaw moo~ araJ maJ-hen , myan ka-taa b;od . 'He can't see a thlng, Just as If he were bllnd.'

12. /dooJ/ and /duaJ/ 'by, wlth, wlth the attendant clrcumstance that' Clause usually comes second and has no subJect If /dooJ/ occurs. khaw khab r6d dooJ maJ-chaJ ~yy: leeJ . 'He drlves wlthout uSlng hls hands at all. ' duaJ khaw pen khon-khab , raw maJ-tS~ klua: leeJ • 'Wlth hlm as drlver (lnasmuch as he's the drlver) we don't have anythlng to be afrald of. '

13. /phr~/ and /phr5-waa/ and /nya~-caag/ 'because, oWlng to the fact that' raw maJ-tS~ klua: leeJ , phr~ khaw pen khon-khab • 'We don't have anythlng to be afrald of, "because he's the drlver. ' nya~-caag cam-nuan khruu Ja~ maJ-phoo , roo~-rlan maJ peed maJ-daJ pll-n{l . 'OWlng to the fact that the number of teachers lS stlll lnsufflclent the new school can't open thls year. ' pham paJ maJ-daJ , phr5-waa r6d sla • 'I can't go, because my car's broken.'

14. /phya/ 'In order to, for the purpose of' Clause usually has no subJect, and predlcate lS usually preceded by /ea-I. khaw keb ~en waJ , phya casyy r6d khan-maJ • 'He lS savlng money to buy a new car. ' phya capen samaa-ch{g : nan, khun tS~ haa phuu-rab-roo~ soo~ khon ha J- da J • 'In order to become a member, you have to flnd two sponsors. ' ConJunctlons of the Ithaa/ class do not necessarlly exclude each other semantlcally (cf. such Engllsh comblnatlons as 'Although In order to save 17.5 money ~t may be necessary to cut corners ••• ,). Examples of two members of the class ~n the same constructlon are extremely rare, however, except wh~n the second member lS actually a /dooJ/-class preposltlon. No lnternal order has been establlshed.

/~/ Class

The class conslsts of conJunctlons whlch occur In absolute lnltlal posltlon In clauses whlch 1) come flrst In a serles of clauses, 2) are In close clause Juncture, and 3) functlon syntactlcally as substantlves. A corollary of the last condltlon lS that ~lauses assoclated wlth /s~/-class members lack one of the typlcal substantlve constltuents - usually tOplC, subJect, or obJect.

In addltlon to occurrlng In the deflnltlve context, /sy~/- conJunc~ lons even more frequently lntroduce the second of two clauses. In such cases the clause so lntroduced may be elther a substantlve constltuent belonglng to the flrst clause as a whole, or a modlfler of a substantlve constltuent actually present In the flrst clause. The class meanlng, then, lS 'substantlve constltuent follows, elther modlfler of somethlng In precedlng clause, or ltself a constltuent of an adJacent clause.' Engllsh equlvalents are relatlve pronouns such as 'who, whlch, what, that.' When the clause lntroduced by a /sy~/-class conJunctlon comes flrst, It lS very frequently closed wlth /nan/ or /nil/, and no matter whlch member of the class occurs, the Engllsh equlvalent lS nearly always '(the fact) . that .•. ' When the /sy~/- lntroduced clause comes second, the echolng /nan/ or /ni~/ lS less common, and the selectlon of a partlcular conJunctlon lS more s~gnlflcant.

The /sy~/ class lS small and closed, the followlng belng the only lmportant members. Three members of the class, 1. /sy~/ ltself, 6./kaan-thil/, and 8. /an/, are assoclated wlth formal Ilterary style, but also sometimes occur In colloqulal speech.

1. /sy~/ or /sy~/ 'That whlch, such a one as, such ones as' sy~ khaw waa: nan, maJ-daJ khwaam . 'Thlngs he says don't make sense.' tog 10~-paJ naJ-khuu , sy~ khaw kh~d: w~J 'It fell down lnto a dltch - one that had been dug. '

2. /thil/ or /thi/ and /thi-waa/ 'That whlch, the one that, the ones that' (Restrlcts a modlf~ed element much more than /sy~/ does.) 176 thll khaw tham: nll , maJ-daJ phan • 'What he has done here lS of no use. ' thl-waa pham duu-th~ug: nan , maJ-cl~ leeJ . 'That I look down on them lS slmply not true. ' tog 10~-paJ naJ-khuu , thl khaw kh~d: waJ • 'It fell down lnto the dltch that had been dug for It.' kh~o th~od: na khr~b , thll pharo maa saaJ: 'Excuse me for comlng so late. ' ('Excuse me that I come so late. ,) , ~g •

3. /waa/ or /wa/ 'that, saYlng, thlnklng, or knowlng that' (lntroduces a quote.) /waa/ lS homonymous wlth a postposltlon of the same meanlng WhlCh occurs at the end of clauses ( waa pham duu-thuug: nan , maJ-cl~: leeJ • 'To say that I look down on them lS slmply not true.' chuaJ b;og khaw duaJ: na khrab , wa pham camaa saaJ. n;oJ • 'Please tell hlm also that I'll be a Ilttle late.' lchan k5-Ja~ maJ-saab nEE-noon, wa capen-paJ-daJ: ryy-maJ . 'I stlll don't know for sure whether lt wlll be posslble or not.'

4. /haJ/ or /haJ/ 'so that, who should, WhlCh should, the hypothetlcal sltuatlon that' In commands and all types of hypothetlcal sltuatlons, and ln noun expresslons lnvolvlng unreal referents, /haJ/ 1S selected. Especlally, lt replaces /sy~/, /th~l/ and /waa/, the flrst three members of thlS class. (See also Compare the folloWlng: khaw casadEE~ lakhoon , thll than lyagl waJ • 'They wlll show the plays that you have selected.' khaw casad£E~ lakhoon , sy~ than lyag: waJ • 'They wlll show such plays as you have selected.' khaw casadEE~ lakhoon , haJ than lyag: waJ • 'They wlll show plays for you to select from' (l.e. 'plays WhlCh you should select from') pham b;og waa-khun paJ duu: si. '1 sald, 'You go take a look.' (Dlrect quote) 177 Other examples of /haJ/' haJ khaw khaw-paJ-k~~n dll kwaa • 'Better let hlm go In flrst. ' ('Wash the clothes so that they. are clean. I) pham b~~g haJ-¥~un paJ duu: sl • 'I sald for you to go take a look.' (Indlrect quote; you may not even have been present.) pharo b~~g: khun waa , paJ dUUI sl . 'I told you, 'Go take a look.' (Dlrect) pham b~~g khun haJ-paJ-duu, sl • 'I told you to go take a look.' (Indlrect, but you were present.) ( 'Hls hypothetlcal enter1ng f1rst 1S better. ' ) chan capaJ-aw phan-lam~aJ ta~-taa~ , haJ kh8cg r~b-prathaan: baa~ . 'I'll go get some assorted fru1ts for the guests to eat.' In addltlon to these uses, /haJ/ lS obllgatory 1) where the subJect of a prlor clause lS not the same as the subJect of the dependent clause, but the new subJect lS not ment10ned, and 2) before all adJect1ves In hypothet1cal predlcates.

Compare the followlng:

1) aw na~-syy maa-duu: n~~J • 'Get the book and see. ' aw na~-syy maa haJ-duu: n~~J • 'Get the book (for someone else) to see.' khraJ law haJ-fa~. la • 'Who told (you) that? ('Who told (for you) to llsten. ,)

2) pham cam daJ-dll . 'I can remember It well. ' cam w~ J ha J- dll: na t. 'Remember 1t well, wlII you? ' s~g phaa haJ-sa-aad: sl t. 'Get the clothes clean!' khaw kh{d haJ-Ia-iad maag. 'He's try1ng to thlnk 1t out In great deta11.' ('He thlnks so that It wlll be very detalled.')

5. /aaJ/ or /aJ/ and /aJ-thll/ 'that, thls buslness of' /aaJ/ most commonly before clauses wlth no subJect. /aJ-thll/ lS the colloqulal equlvalent of 6. /kaan-thll/ ln many cases. aaJ capaJ f~a~ saan: nil , maJ-daJ phan: 188J • 'ThlS buslness of taklng lt to court lS absolutely useless. ' aJ-thll khaw tham baab: nan, chan maJ-thyy • 'That he may have commltted a sln, I don't hold agalnst hlm. '

6. /kaan-thll/ 'the fact that, the SUpposltlon that, that WhlCh, lna smuch as' kaan-thll khaw s;ab tog, pham maJ pralaad-caJ: 188J . 'That he should have falled the examlnatlon doesn't surprlse me at all. ' kaan-thll khaw tham-daJ ee~: nan, Jaa paJ-thood: khaw l88J • 'Inasmuch as he was able to do lt by hlmself, don't blame hlm so much. '

7. /s~an/ and sam-rab/ or /samrab/ 'As for the fact (or SUpposltlon) that' s~an paJ-w~d paJ-waa: nan maJ-khaad: sa sag-thll • 'As for gOlng to the temples and that sort of thlng, she never falls to.' samrab khE~-khan: kan nil , pham k5-maJ-r~u rya~ • 'As for thelr competlng together, I know nothlng about It.'

8. /an/ and /an-waa/ 'one that, such that' The form /an/ Substltutes for /thll/, and the form /an-waa/ for /waa/ (when the /waa/-clause comes flrst) ln formal style. naJ loog an-tem paJ-duaJ th~gl nil .•• 'In thls world WhlCh lS full of mlsfortune ••. ' an-waa khaw tham phid: nan , k5-Cl~: J~u • '(To say) that he dld wrong lS true enough.'

9. /thaw-thil/ or /thaw-thll/ and /taam/ and /taam-thll/ 'lnsofar as, to the extent that, accordlng to what' thaw-thll pham saab , khaw sabaaJ dll • 'As far as I know, he's well.' phom phaJaa-Jam catham haJ-maag , thaw-thll catham daJ . 'I'm trylng to do as much of lt as can posslbly be done.' phom phaJaa-Jam catham taam-thll khaw sa~: w~J • 'I'm trylng to do lt as he ordered.'

10. /chen/ or /chen/, /Jaa~/, and /Jaa~-chen/ 'such as, llke' /chen/ lS frequently followed by a complementlve /pen-ton/ at the end of ltS clause. khaw tham araJ-araJ ph~d: m~d , chen aw-law paJ-haJ d~g kln: pen-ton. 'She does everythlng wrong, llke glvlng WhlSky to bables. ' khaw casad€€~ lakhoon , Jaa~ than lyag: W~J • 'They wlll show plays such as you have selected.' (Compare flrst three examples under 4. /haJ/, and also see /Jaa~/, /thaa/-class, Internal order of the class lS not flxed, but two /sy~/-conJunctlons do occur In the same clause: kaan-~hll h[J-khaw tham ee~: nan... 'The fact that he should be allowed to do lt hlmself .•• ' s~an aaJ paJ-w~d paJ-waal nan••• 7 5 'As for thlS buslness of gOlng to the temple ••• ' Jaa~ waa th~ug: nan•.• 10 3 'Such as lS sald to be correct ••• '

/!El!J/ Class

These conJunctlons are the only ones WhlCh occur after the subJects or tOP1CS of thelr clauses. They come lmmedlately after the subJect and before all elements of the predlcate, lncludlng all types of modals. Syntactlcally thelr clauses are exactly llke clauses lntroduced by /dlaw/-class conJunctlons - l.e. they are lndependent clauses WhlCh can occur flrst In a serleswlthout belng In close Juncture. The class meanlng lS partlally the same, also: 'temporal or loglcal correlatlon wlth precedlng message, or establlshment of tlme-sequence, expectedness, or unexpectedness of event. ' The class lS closed, and extremely small, conslstlng of only four members and thelr varlants. The flrst member, /koo/, lS easlly the most common lexeme 1n the ent1re language and 1S very d1ff1cult to translate 1n most of 1tS contexts. All members except /cy~/ 1tself (Wh1Ch has a sllghtly Ilterary flavor) have homonYms belong1ng to other classes. 1. /k5o/ or /k5/ or /ko/ 'then, that be1ng the case, ln addlt1on, slm1larly, at least' (The f1rst form occurs under normal stress, the last two forms elsewhere.)

sed leEw , khaw k5-paJ noon. 'When 1t was f1n1shed, he went to bed. ' ('Hav1ng f1n1shed, he then went to bed. ,) thaa pen khruu , pham ko-maJ-waa araJ • 'If 1t'S a teacher, then I ~on't m1nd.' raw paJ-duu na~ k5-daJ: nl khrab • 'We could go to a mov1e, too, you know. ' ('Our gOlng to a mOV1e 1S an add1t1onal poss1b1l1ty, here. ,) pham ee~ k5-maJ-r~u rya~ . 'I myself, at least, don't know anyth1ng about 1t.' d1aw saam11 k50 car~u than . 'Pretty soon her husband w1ll f1nd out (too) •. ' pa J , ko pa J: si . 'If we're gOlng, let's go.'

Bes1des occurrence 1n the def1n1t1ve context, /k5o/ has two other semant1cally 1mportant uses: 1) after an 1nterrogat1ve word of any class, 1~ changes the 1nterrogat1ve mean1ng to '1ndef1n1te,' and 2) repeated 1n parallel constru~t1ons, 1t means 'both.•• and ..• ' or 'e1ther .•. or ...

1) moo~ araJ ko-maJ-hen • 'I can't see anyth1ng.' ('Whatever I look at, I can't see. ,) thl1-naJ k5-d11 • ('Anywhere 1S all r1ght. ') 'Anywhere at all.' 2) paJ k5-daJ , JUu k5-daJ • 'You can e1ther go or stay. ' khruu k5-m11 , nag-r1an k5-m11 . 'There are both teachers and students. '

2. /188J/ or /18J/ 'consequently, as m1ght be expected, therefore' mya hen waa , phyan maJ-J~u , khaw 188J klab baan • 'When he saw h1S fr1end was not there, he (for that reason) went home. ' 181 mll meeg l~g-n~~J: thaw-n~n , pham l88J maJ-ncc caJ: wa , fan catog ry-plaaw . 'There were only a few clouds, so I wasn't sure whether It would raln or not. '

3. /cy~/ and /thy~/ or /thy~/ 'subsequently, only then, It comes to the pOlnt that' (The form /cy~/ lS more formal than the other two.) dyan naa , thy~ camll ~aan ilg.khra~: ny~ • 'There won't be another falr untll next month. ' ('Next month, only then, wlll there be another falr. ,) r~~ ilg-sag-khruu , lS2w Cy~-khDJ paJ • 'Walt & moment longer, and (only) then go. ' mya hen waa , phyan maJ-Juu , khaw thYD klab baan 'When he saw hls frlend was not there, he (after that) went home. ' Another lmportant use of /cy~/ lS In clauses lntroduced by /thamaJ/-class complementlves-see examples (

4. /JaD/ 'stlll, even, contlnues to, goes so fas as to.' Frequently echoed by /Juu/ at end of verb expresslon, or /ilg/ at end of whole clause. khaw JaD pen nag-rlanl JUu • 'He lS (or was) stlll a student. r pham JaD tDD-kaan casyy buril: ilg . 'I stlll need to buy clgarettes also. ' khaw Ja~ b;~g: khun waa , khaw aad camaJ-paJ • 'They even told you they mlght not go. ' r~d-faJ JaD maJ-;~g: ilg ryY t . 'Isn't the traln leavlng ~~ , Ja~ maJ-daJ-paJ • 'It hasn't gone yet. t tha~-thaD-thil hen waa , phyan maJ-Juu , khaw k5-Ja~klab baana ilg • tAlthough he saw that hls frlend was not there, he stlll (In splte of that) went home. ' Internal order of the class lS 1, 2-3, 4, but the comblnatlons 13 and 34 are rare. Examples: khaw k5-188J kl~b baan . 1 2 'He then (consequently) went home. ' k5-Ja~ (see last example under /Ja~/) 1 4 A '" , khaw 18J Ja~ maJ ruu-cag kan . '80 they stlll don't know each other. '


A postposltlon lS any bound lexeme that occurs as a latter const1tuent of an express1on, predlcatlon, enumeratlon or phrase, such that the larger constructlon (prlor constltuent plus postposltlon) lS less than an ent1re clause. The class of postposltlons lS thus 1n general contrast wlth that of sentence partlcles (4.5.), WhlCh together wlth thelr co-constltuents compr1se entlre clauses, although there lS some overlap between the two classes. Llke the bound lexeme classes WhlCh lntroduce constructlons - modals (4.1.), preposltlons (4.2.), and conJunctlons (4.3.) - postposltlons are sub-clasSlfled accordlng to the nature of thelr co-qonstltuent. The subclasses are 1) /waJ/ class (verb modlflers), 2) /nag/ class (adJectlve modlflers), 3) /baa~/ class (substantlve and predlcatlon mod1f1ers), and 4) enumeratlve postposltlons, WhlCh mod1fy or create enumeratlons. The constructlons resultlng from the flrst three types of postposltlon are endocentrlc, and from the last type, elther endocentrlc or exocentrlc. All postposltlons characterlstlcally have weak stress, and, llke the sentence partlcles, frequently occur after the morpheme / : / In thelr phrases and clauses. The class meanlng lS 'restrlctlon as to tlme, space, quantlty, or degree of a free-lexeme concept' for the flrst three sub-classes, and 'lncluslveness, dlstrlbutlon, or cross-reference of an enumeratlon' for the fourth sub-class. Except for the /baa~/-class, and to s'ome extent the /nag/ class, the membershlp lS extremely Ilmlted.

/wa .1/ Class

These postposltlons occur wlth weak stress lmmedlately follow1ng and In constructlon wlth verb expresslons. If the verb expresslon lncludes an obJect, the /waJ/-class member always follows the obJect; If the predlcate lncludes a preposltlon, the /waJ/-class member elther precedes or follows the prepos1t1onal phrase. The members of the class are not negatable 1n any pos1t1on, but all have homonYms Wh1Ch are verbs. The class mean1ng 1S 'or1entat1on of act10n w1th respect to space and t1me relat1onsh1ps,' and the forms together const1tute a k1nd of aspectual system for the verb. The ent1re class cons1sts of pa1rs of semant1c opposltes, but sets 1-4 and 7-10 have an even more complex 1nternal relat1onsh1p. Members of set 1-4 exclude each other ent1rely. Members 8 and 10 have 1dent1cal allomorphs, but on the bas1s of greater frequency of /sla/ 1n mean1ng 8, and /sa/ 1n mean1ng 10, the pattern1ng of Oppos1t1on lS ma1nta1ned (7-8, 9-10) •

The class lS small and closed, cons1st1ng only of these ten members.

1. /khaw/ 'lnto an enclosed space, or closer to the center of 1nterest' man khwaa~ luug-boon khaw-paJ-naJ-hn~ • 'He threw the ball lnto the room. ' deen khaw-maa klaJ-klaJ: na • 'Walk r1ght up close, w1ll you~'

2. /oog/ 'out of an enclosed space or farther from the center of 1nterest' , '" , Jaa waaJ-naam oog-paJ klaJ-klaJI ne . 'Don't SWlm out too far, now.' khaw wiD oog-maa-caag-hnD' phoo-d11 • 'He came runn1ng out of the room Just then.'

3. /khyn/ 'upward, newly arr1ved on the scene' khew Jib naD-syy khyn-maa • 'He Ilfted up the books.' (/Jib/ 'plck up') slaD pyyn-koo daD: khyn • fA p1stol-shot rang out (suddenly).'

4. /loD/ 'downward, depart1ng from the scene' khew phaa-kan-th{D knon-hin 10D-paJ naJ-khuu • 'They were all dropp1ng stones down 1nto the pond. ' faJ kamlaD dab: 10D • 'Th0 flre lS dy1ng down. '

5. /paJ/ 'away from the speaker, toward the future or an lndef1nlte or lrrelevant goal,' before prepos1tlonal phrase: 'toward a defln1te but d1stant goal, toward the future.' laa W1~ khaw-paJ-naJ-paa • 'The donkey ran off 1nto the forest (to get away).' khaw Jam naa: paJ baa~ • '(One of the th1ngs) they (do 1S) trample the f1elds.' raw to~ kh~~J paJ-i1g-naan: rnaJ • 'Do we have to keep on wa1t1ng long~' ta~-teE wan-nan: paJ •.• 'From that day (In the future) onward ..• r 6. /maa/ 'toward the speaker, up to the present or toward a def1n1te, relevant, nearby goal. ' ta~-te8 wan-nan: roaa ••• 'From that day (In the past) onward ..• ' raw kh~~J maa-naan l8Ew. 'We have been wa1t1ng a long t1me already (the wa1t1ng mayor may not be over).' v paJ naJ: maa . 'Where have you been?' (/paJ naJ/ 'Where are you gOlng~ ,) ~8n , thl1 khaw daaJ: maa ••• 'The money Wh1Ch he had gotten... ' laa wi~ khaw-maa-naJ-paa . 'The donkey ran 1nto the forest (toward us).' mya-waan-n{l lyym syy: maa . 'I forgot to bUl 1t yesterday. ' , , cf. mya-waan-n11 lyym syy: paJ . 'I forgot to buy 1t yesterday. ' 7. /waJ/ or /waaJ/ and /aw-waJ/ and /th{~-waJ/ 'removed from the scene but w1th future relevance, put aS1de temporar1ly for future reference, act10n deferred. ' 1chan ded d;~g-maaJ: aw-wa~ ' saJ cEE-kan . 'I'm p1ck1ng flowers to put 1n a vase.' pham c;~d r~d: th{~-waJ , khaa~-naa 'I have the car parked out front. ' dlchan ta~-caJ: waJ leEw waa camaa-haa khun • 'I had already lntended to come to see you. r cam waaJ haJ-dll: na • 'Remember lt well, wlll you~ r th{~ sya: waJ , thll-nan: s{ . 'Leave the coat there (where you can get It).' 8. ISlal or /sa/ 'removed from the scene permanently, wlth no future relevance' th{~ sYa. sia thll-nan: s{ . 'Leave the coat there (to get rld of It).' met maJ-daJ-paJ nSJ: sia . 'Your mother hasn't gone anywhere (for good).' 9. IJuu/ 'remalnlng on the scene, unchanged, actlon contlnulng, temporary, wlthout necessary future slgnlflcance. r dlchan khDDJ: JUu , ta~-naan leEw • 'I am belng kept waltlng an awfully long tlme. ' laa Wl~ khaw-paJ-Juu naJ-paa • 'The donkey had run lnto the forest (and was stlll there, lf only temporarlly).' caan waa~ Juu-bon-to • 'The dlshes had been placed on the table (wlth what lntent, we don't know.)' khaw'kamla~ rlan na~-syy: JUu , naJ-amee-rikaa . 'He lS studylng In Amerlca (for the present, at least). r pham pen samaa-ch{g Juu-IEew • 1 I am alrea dy a member (a s 1 t happens).' ~en thll pham mll' JUu ••. 'The money WhlCh I (happen to) have ... ' 10. Isa/ or ISlal 'sltuatlon changed, actlon vlewed as a unlt, not contlnulng lnto the future' tEE pham pen samaa-ch{g sa-lEEw . 'But now I've become a member.' N ' _ A khaw waa~ caan waJ sa-naJ-tuu . 'She has (gone and) put the dlshes away In the cupboard.' kln: sa Sll t . 'Eat It upJ' (/kln Sll/ 'EatJ ,) dlchan khooJ: sa , ta~-naan le€w . 'I walted an awfully long tlme (the waltlng lS over now).' Internal order of the class lS 1-4, 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, wlth representatlves from no more than three of the sets belng found In a slngle constructlon. Dlstrlbutlon of 1-4 wlth respect to 5-6 lS complete. 1. 2. 3. 4. khaw paJ 'golng In' khaw maa 'comlng In' .. oog paJ 'golng out' oog maa 'comlng out' khyn paJ 'golng up' khyn maa 'comlng up' lOlJ paJ 'golng down' lOlJ maa 'comlng down' The remalnlng dlstrlbutlon lS as follows: S"la waJ sa ,. .. waJ JUu 'gone away for good' 'gone subJect to recall' 'gone to stay, lncldentally' 'gone, slgnlflcantly' 'havlng gone there subJect to recall' 'as of now, gone subJect to recall' pa J paJ paJ paJ sa paJ paJ

6. (maa sla (8) does not occur) ,. maa wa J (7) maa JUu (9) maa sa (10) maa waJ sa 'come subJect to recall' 'come to stay, lncldentally' 'come, slgnlflcantly' 'as of now, come subJect to recall'

7. ,. .. waJ JUU 'kept, lncldentally' 'kept, slgnlflcantly' 8-10. are termlnal. Addltlonal examples. k3on-hln tog lOlJ-paJ-Juu naJ-n~am 459 'The stone had fallen down lnto the water. ' 187 k3on-hin tog 10~-paJ-sa naJ-naam • 4 5 10 'The stone fell down lnto the water. ' k3on-hin tog 10~-paJ-naJ-naam: sia . 458 'The stone fell down lnto the water (and was lost).' pham tham dll maa-sa-maaga lEew t . 6 10 'I've already done a lot of good!' pham tham dll Juu-maag: lEew • 9 'I'm already dOlng a lot of good.' dlchan ded d;og-maaJ: maa-waJ , sSJ cee-kan . 6 7 'I've plcked some flowers to put In a vase.'

/nag/ Class

These postposltlons occur wlth weak stress lmmedlately after, and In constructlon wlth, adJectlves. The class lncludes some members whlch are homonYmOus wlth /waJ/- class postposltlons (5-8 below) but have qUlte dlfferent meanlngs, and some members whlch are homonYmOus wlth /baa~/-class postposltlons (13-15, 18) and have slmllar meanlngs. /nag/ ltself occurs most commonly after negated adJectlves, members 2-17 rarely so occur, and 18-19 are found In both types of constructlon. The class meanlng lS 'to a certaln extent.' The class lS open (and, In fact, seems to act as a magnet for slang lnnovatlons); the membershlp lS qUlte large. The followlng llst, however, lncludes the most frequent members.

1. /nag/ 'to such an extent, too, so' thaa thee tyyn chaa: nag, thee k3-capaJ maJ-than r6d • 'If you get up so late, you'll never make the traln.' pham kheeJ paJ , tee maJ-b;J' nag. 'I've been there, but not too often.'

2. /dll/ 'to a deslrable degree, nlce and ... ' h3~-n{l kwaa~: dll • 'Thls room lS nlce and spaclous.' lEew 10m Ja~ ree~: dll duaJ . lAnd the wlnd lS nlce and strong, too.'

3. /thldlaw/ or /chlaw/ and /tem-thll/ 'qulte, completely' kh;ob-khun , pham im: thldlaw (tem-thll) • 'Thank you, I'm completely full.' (refuslng food) wan-n{l maa sa-ch~a: chlaw t mua paJ-Juu sa thll-naJ t . 'You're qUlte late today; where on earth have you been~' r~d len rew: tem-thll • 'The car went at full speed. '

4. /keen-paJ/ and /paJ/ 'too, excesslvely' hen camaaga keen-paJ lamaD • 'Don't you thlnk that's Ilttle too much~' chan tham maJ-th~ug: leGJ t phuud JaD{l k5-waa , ch~a: paJ-ilg • 'I can't do anythlng rlght; even when I talk llke thlS, you stlll say It's too slow.'

5. /;og/ and /;og-cataaJ/ 'to an undeslrably great extent. ' naD-syy lem-n{l naa: ;og-cataaJ . 'Thls book lS terrlbly thlCk. ' chan phuud ch~a: ;og JaD{l leEw t JaD faD maJ-than: ilg reG. 'I've already slowed down an awful lot as It lSi can't you understand what I'm saYlng yet~'

6. /khaw/ 'closer to a deslred goal or ultlmate condltlon, progresslvely more' phoo thaaJ ruub pen: khaw leEw ••. 'When you get a Ilttle better at taklng plctures ••• ' rew !khaw: Sll t . 'Hurry up! Faster! I

7. /khyn/ 'more than before, In lncreaslng fashlon' 8. /IOD/ 'more than before, In decreaslng fashlon' khaw uant khyn . 'He's gettlng fatter.' khaw kEEl lOD • 'He's gettlng older.' phuud rew: khyn ilg-n{d , daJ: maJ • 'Gan you speak a Ilttle faster~' phuud chaa: lo~ ilg-n{d , daJ: maJ • 'Can you speak a Ilttle slower~' aakaan dll: khyn • 'Hls condltlon lS lmproved.' ph00 so~-khraam khSJ-sa~ob: lo~ , 'When the flghtlng flnally qUleted down' (Selectlon between these two ltems lS to a large extent lexlcally condltloned, but /khyn/ lS by far the more common.)

9. /kwaa/ and /keen-kwaa/ 'more than somethlng else of ltS klnd, comparatlvely more' tham Ja~ll dll kwaa . 'It's better to do It thls way.' na~-syy lem-n{l naa: kwaa • 'Thls book lS thlcker (than some other book).' khaw Ja~ phuud chaa: kwaa • 'He speaks even more slowly (than someone else).'

10. /thll-sud/ or /thlsud/ and /kwa-phyan/ 'more than all others of ltS klnd, most, extremely' r~d khan-n{l lEn rew: thil-sud • 'Thls car runs the fastest of all. ' tham Ja~an kS-dll: thlsud • 'It would be best to do It that way. ' khon-nan phuud chaa: thlsud . 'That one speaks extremely slowly.' na~-syy lem-n{l naa kwa-phyan . 'Thls book lS thlcker than the others. '

11. /thaw-kan/ or /thaw-thaw: kan/ 'to the same degree, equally' n~g-rlan Sa0~ khan: n{l , ph~ud chaa: thaw-kan . 'These two students both speak slowly. I dln-SQ0 SQ0~ thE~: n{l , Jaaw thaw-thaw: kan . 'These two penclls are equally long. '

12. /ph00/ and /ph00-chaaJ/ 'to a satlsfactory degree, enough' kS khaw khab r~d rew: ph00-chaaJ . 'Well, he drlves fast enough. ' leEw 10m Ja~ rEE~: phDD duaJ • 'And the wlnd was stlll sufflclently strong, too.'

13. /maag/ (and many slang Substltutes) 'very'

14. /n{d-dlaw/ 'very (restrlcted to small-scale concepts) , 15. /noDJ/ 'a Ilttle, rather, somewhat' khaw khab r~d ch~a: maag • 'He drlves very slowly. ' baan J~u kla J: maag • 'The house lS very far away. ' baan JUu klaJ: n{d-dlaw • 'The house lS very close. ' baan JUu klaJI nODJ • 'The house lS rather far away. '

16. /lya-keen/ or /lakeen/ and Item-thll/ 'excesslvely In an undeSlrable sense, terrlbly' Jm8E t wan-n{l r~Dnl lakeen • 'My, It's awfully hot today.' khaw khab r~d rew: lya-keen • 'He drlves terrlbly fast. ' chaaw-phyyn-mya~ suan-maag can: tem-thll • 'Most of the lnhabltants are terrlbly poor. '

17. /ca~! and /Cl~-Cl~/ 'really' na~ leeg ch~a: ca~ • 'The mOVle lS really slow lettlng out. ' pham ch5Db maag: Cl~-Cl~ • 'I really llke lt a lot. '

18. /thaw-raJ/ or /thaw-raJ/ 'how much, to any extent' Ja J: thaw-ra J . 'How blg lS lt~' maJ-JaJ: thaw-raJ. 'It's not blg at all.'

19. /leeJ/ 'qulte', after negatlve, 'not at all' na~ thll-nll sabaaJ: leeJ • 'It's qUlte pleasant slttlng here.' phaa n11 maJ-d11: 188J • 'Th1S cloth 1S no good. '

Two /n~g/-class postpos1t1ons follow1ng a slngle adJect1ve are not uncommon, and th1S 1S apparently also the maX1mum number of mod1f1ers. From the sets 1-5, 6-8, 9-11, 12-15 and 16-19, only one member of each set may occur 1n such construct1ons. Internal order of the class works as follows: From set 1-5, /k88n-paJ/ and 1tS alternant /paJ/ are followed by 13-15, and 19; other members of th1S set are term1nal. Set 6-8 1S followed by 9 and by 12-15 and 16-19. From set 9-11, /kwaa/ 1S followed by 13-15 and 18-19; other members are term1nal.

From set 12-15, /maag/ 1S followed by 1 or 3 and 16-17; other members are term1nal. Set 16-19 1S not followed by members of any other set. Examples of double mod1f1catlon of adJect1ves by /n~g/-class members follow. In all cases but the last the 1mmed1ate const1tuent analys1s 1S AB/C. rew khyn: kwaa 7 9 rew khyn: maag 7 13 rew khyn: thaw-raJ 7 18 rew kwaa: n{d-d1aw 9 14 'faster than ever' 'much faster than before' 'how much faster than before' 'a Ilttle faster than the other' rew kwaaa 9 'how much faster than the other' rew maag: ch1aw 13 3 rew maag: ca~ 13 17 , rew: paJ-nooJ 4 15 'def1n1tely very fast' 'really very fast' 'a Ilttle too fast'

Construct1ons w1th members 6-8 as a const1tuent also occur frequently 1n parallel phrases, khan maa khooJ-r~b J~u-neEn: paJ-mod , r~d t5~-18n ch~a: khaw , ch~a: khaw , th~g th11 . 'There were so many people wa1t1ng for the bus 1t kept hav1ng to slow up more and more. r 192 naa-likaa khoo~-chaL , Ji~ aw-paJ-kE8 , Jl~ deen rew: khyn , rewa khYn, th~g thll. 'The more I take my watch to be repalred the faster It runs. ' Jl~ aw-paJ-ke~ , Ji~ deen chaa: lo~ , chaa: lo~ , th~g thll • 'The mor~ I take It to be flxed, the slower It runs. '

/baalJ/ Class

These postposltlons are all weak. stressed forms of those feeD/-class complementlves ( whlch have the syntactlc functlon of replaclng partltlve numeral phrases (, and they follow both /waJ/-class and /nag/-class postposltlons In the same clause. Just as the /waJ/-class modlfles verbs and the /nag/-class modlfles adJectlves, the /baaD/ class can be saJd to modlfy substantlves, In the sense that when a noun expresslon occurs In the prlor part of the clause, the /baaD/-class postposltlon refers to It (see flrst example under 1. /baaD/ below). When no noun expresslon lS so modlfled, the postposltlon has the entlre predlcatlon as ltS co-constltuent (see second example under 1. /baaD/ below). Llke thelr counterpart members of the feeD/-class of complementlves, the members of the /baa~/-class have covert lexlcal relatlonshlps wlth partltlve numerals (see tabulatlon In - for example /baaD/ ltself replaces any numeral phrase lntroduced by /baaD(. All members of the /eeD/ class whlch correspond to /baaD/-class postposltlons, moreover, can be preceded by /sag/-class preposltlons (4.2.5.), although lndlvldual members are Ilmlted as to the type of preposltlon they can follow - for example /baa~/ ltself lS preceded only by /ilg/. The occurrence of normal stress on the ltem followlng the /sag/-class preposltlon and the nature of the constructlon requlre lnterpretatlon of thls ltem as a complementlve rather than a postposltlon In all cases.

The class meanlng of both the /baaD/-postposltlons and thelr correspondlng complementlves lS 'quantlty of a substantlve expresslon, or frequency of a predlcate or predlcatlve expresslon.' The class lS small but open, wlth frequent slang lnnovatlon. For each member lnformatlon lS glven on the partltlve numeral replacement and the /sag/-class preposltlons whlch precede (the latter lnformatlon applYlng only to the complementlve).

1. /baaD/ or /maD/ 'some, sometlmes, some of It, some of them' Replaced In numeral phrases by /baaD/, follows only /llg/. pham tOD-kaan naam ilg-baaD • II need some more water. ' lchan Jaag capaJ aJud-thaJaa; ma~ s{ • 'I'd 11ke to go to Ayuthya ~tlme.'

2. /1~g-n68J/ 'a few, few, 11ttle, a 11ttle' Replaced by /n68J/, follows /ilg/ and /phla~/. phom tQ~-kaan naam phla~-1~g-n68J • 'I need only a 11ttle water. ' aad camll phaJu ilg-1~g-n68J • 'There may be a few more storms.'

3. /maJ~maag/ and /maJ-thaw-raJ/ 'not many, not much' Replaced by /maJ-kil/, follows only iilg/. fan aad catog ilg maJ-thaw-raJ • 'Not much more raln lS 11kely to fall.'

4. /maag/ or /mag-maag/ and /tha~-laaJ/ 'much, many, lots of, the several' Replaced by /laaJ/, follows only /llg/. Selectl0n among the three forms lS compllcated: /maag/ 18 general, but /mag-maag/ lS usually used where /maag/ mlght be lnterpreted as one of ltS homonYmS (see flrst two examples); /tha~-laaJ/ lS used ln dlrect modlflcatlon of nouns and pronouns as a general plurallzer. khaw chQ8b rab-prathaan aahaan: mag-maag. 'He 11kes to eat lots of food (large meals).' khaw chQ8b rab-prathaan aahaan maag • 'He 11kes to eat lots of food' or 'He llkes eatlng food very much. ' nag-rlan th~~-laaJ t . 'Students]' Ja~ tQ~-kaan fan 11g-maag (mag-maag) . 'Much more raln lS stlll needed. '

5. /kll-man68J/ and /thaw-raJ/ 'how much, how many' Replaced by /kil/, follows /ilg/ and /sag/. khun tQ~-kaan naam ilg-thaw-raJ • 'How much more water do you need~ , mll nag-rlan sag-k{1-man68J • 'About how many students are there~'

6. /m~d/, /tha~-m~d/ and /tha~-sln/ fall of It, the whole buslness ' Replaced by preposltlon /tha~/ (, follows only /kyab/. khaw khan khoo~ paJ kyab-m~d: leEw • 'They have taken nearly all the stuff away. I ruam tha~-m~d , kh{d thaw-raJ • 'Includlng everythlng, how much do you flgure It would be~ I

7. /tha~-n~n/ fall of them, every one I Replaced by /th~g/, follows only /kYab/. khaw 188J paJ-w~d: kan tha~-n~n • 'They all went to the wat. '

8. /n{d/, /n~oJ/, and /n{d-n;oJ/ 'a Ilttle blt ' Not replaced In numeral phrases, follows /sag/ and /~lg/. khoo n~am& sag-n;o J • 'Please glve me a l~ttle water. I phuud ch~a: lo~ ~lg-n{d , daJ: maJ . 'Can you speak a Ilttle slower~1 pham t3~-kaan teE n{d-n;oJ: thaw-n~n • 'I only need a Ilttle blt of It. '

9. /J~/ or /J8/ or /J~-Je/ 'a whole lot' Not replaced, follows /ta~/ and /ilg/. pham Ja~ t3~-kaan n~am ilg-J~ • 'I stlll need a whole lot more water. ' I'oJ V V V tAo ~, khaw khaaJ na~-syy ta~-J8-JE . 'They sell an awful lot of books. '

10. /naan/ 'a long tlme ' Replaced by /laaJ/ and a tlme-classlfler, follows only /ta~/ and /~lg/. to~ kh~oJ paJ-ilg-naan: maJ • 'Must we walt much longer~ I khaw tham-~aan thll-nll maa-ta~-naam: lleEw • 'He has been worklng here for an awfully long tlme. I 195

11. /maJ-naan/ and /maJ-chaa/ 'not long' Replaced by /maJ-kil/ and a tlme-classlrler, rol10ws only /ilg/. t5~ khooJ paJ-ilg : maJ-naan. 'We won't have to walt much longer. ' One dlscontlnuous postposltlon, WhlCh occurs only In parallel constructlon, probably belongs to thlS class, although It does not clearly correspond to any partltlve numeral, except posslbly /khry~/ 'half': 12. /phlaa~•.• phlaa~/ 'slmultaneously, sometlmes •.• sometlmes •.. , half •.• haIr ... ' khaw phuud: phlaa~ , hua-ro: phlaa~ • 'He was half talklng, half laughlng. ' Members of the /baa~/ class seem to exclude each other completely. No l~ternal order can be stated.

Enumeratlve Postposltlons

The remalnlng postposltlons are always the flnal constltuents of enumeratlons, occurrlng wlth weak stress In the last posslble posltlon In the constructlon. There are four sub-groups: 1) those WhlCh occur after cardlnal numeral phrases (, 2) those WhlCh occur after /nll/~ class demonstratlves ( and thelr derlvatlves (see tabulatlon below), 3) those WhlCh occur after lnterrogatlve lexemes contalnlng the morphs /aJ! and /aJ/ (see, 6. and tabulatlon below), 4) those WhlCh occur after all types of aonstructlon and make enumeratlons out of whatever precedes. The enumeratlve postposltlons do not form a well-deflned, mutually excluslve class, but constltute a resldue. Some double as sentence partlcles (4.5.). For convenlence of reference, the related group of common demonstratlve and lnterrogatlve lexemes and constructlons WhlCh are followed by enumeratlve postposltlons of sub-groups 2) and 3) are llsted below.

/khon-nan/ /khon-n{l/ /an-nan/ /an-n{l/ /Ja~an/ or IJa~ll/ or Demonstratlve 'that person' 'thlS person' 'that thlng' 'thlS thlng' /~an/ 'thus' I~{l/ 'so' Interrogatlve /khraJ/ 'who' /khon-naJ/ 'WhlCh person' lara J/ 'what' /an-naJ/ 'WhlCh thlng r /thamaJI 'why' / Ja~a J/ 'how' /mya-min/ 'then' /dlaw-n{l/ 'now' /thll-nan/ 'there' /thll-nll/ 'here' /thll-noon/ 'over there' /thaw-n~n/ 'that much' /kheE-n{l/ 'thls much' /thll-n{l/ 'thls tlme' /mya-raJ/ /thaw-raJ/ /khEE-naJ/ /thll-raJ/ 'when' 'where' 'how much' 'to wha t extent' 'whlch tlme'

Numeral postpositions

1. /s~ed/ or /s~ed-s~ed/ and /kwaa/ or /kwa-kwaa/ 'plus a resldue' S;~D r~~J baad: s~ed • 'Over two hundred baht. ' haa mooD: kwa-kwaa • 'Later than flve o'clock.' (See also, end.)

2. /la/ 'per, based on the precedlng unlt' Occurs malnly after the slmultaneous constructlon of a unlt or metrlc classlfler (,2.) or classlfler numeral ( plus the normal-stress morpheme 'one' (see, but also after ordlnary cardlnal numeral phrases. kluaJ raa-khaa baJ-Ia-baad • 'The bananas are one baht each (one-baht per one-banana).' n~m-taan raa-khaa kl-loo: la , sib baad • 'The sugar lS ten baht per kllo. ' r~~J-Ia-s;~D • 'Two percent (two per hundred).' saam dyan la-khr~D . 'Once every three months. '

Demonstratlve postposltlons

1. /ee~/ 'the very one, exactly, none other than' thaw-n~n: ee~ •{l: ee~ • ,. Ja~an: ee~ . thll-nlla ee~ • 'Just that much. ' 'Rlght now. ' 'Preclsely that way. ' 'Rlght here. '

2. /lE/ and /~aJ/ 'there It lS, that's the one (polntlng out somethlng that has been sought) , nll: ~a J . Ja~~n: lE • khon-n{l: ~a J . 'That's all. That does It.' 'Here It lS. Thls lS the one.' 'That's how It lS.' 'Thls lS the person. ' (Speakers seem to prefer the form /lE/ after /n~n/, /noon/, and thelr derlvatlves, /~aJ/ after /n{l/ and lts derlvatlves.) 3. /nE/ 'look at thls new thlng (polntlng to somethlng not sought) , noon: nE t duu: Sl t nll: nE , kun-cEE hS~ • 'Over there! Look!' 'Here's the key to the room.' The members of thls sub-group exclude each other. /lE/, /~aJ/, and /ne/ are also sentence partlcles (4.5.2.).

Interrogatlve postposltlons

1. /kan/ 'reasonable answer not foreseen' maa thamaJ: kan t . cf. maaa kan , thamaJ t . ara J: kan t . 'Why the devll have you come7' 'Why have you (plural) come~' (pronoun /kan/) 'What In the world! '

2. /baa~/ 'plural or multlple answer foreseen' 'Who all are you gOlng wlth7' 198 khun capa J nav J: baalJ . 'What places are you gOlng to'?' ara J: baalJ . 'What (plural)" '

3. /la/ or /law/ 'answer demanded' maa thama J: law t . 'Why have you come'" khun capaJ v naJI la 'Where are you ~'" ara J: la t . 'Wha t. ' (Engllsh falllng lntona tlon)

4. /na/ 'answer not expected, or should be already known to speaker' maa thama J I na • khun capaJ naJI na • 'I wonder why he came.' 'Where lS It you're gOlng'" 'What" ' (Engllsh hlgh rlslng lntona tlon) Internal order of the sub-group lS 1, 2, 3-4, the last two members excludlng each other. Example: JUu thll-na J: kan baalJ la t . 'Where the devll are they all'?' ('They are In what unreasonable places, tell meJ ,) Members 3. and 4. also occur as sentence partlcles (4.5.2.).

General enumeratlve postposltlons

1. /n~l/ or /nll/ or /nle/ 'thls sort of thlng (prevlously mentloned) , The flrst two forms are weak-stressed verSlons of the demonstratlve /n~l/ 'thls,' and the thlrd contalns an addltlonal morpheme (probably to be ldentlfled wlth /18/ and /nE/, demonstratlve postposltlons descrlbed above). wan-alJkhaanl n~l , pen kham san-sakrid . 'Thls (word) 'Tuesday' lS a Sanskrlt word. ' (cf.) wan-alJkhaan n~l , pham caJud lJaan . 'I'm gOlng to take thls Tuesday off.' (demonstratlve /n{l/) suan nag-rlan trlam paJ s~oml kan nie ... 'As for thls buslness of the preparatory students gOlng to drlll •.. '

2. /nan/ or /nan/ or /na/ 'that sort of thlng (prevlously mentloned) , The flrst two forms are weak-stressed demonstratlves and the thlrd lS probably a comblnatlon of /nan/ and /nE/ or /le/. kaan cab-plaat nan, mll laaJ Jaa~ • 'For that flsh-catchlng operatlon there are several methods. ' chaluaJt na , pen chyy phuU-Jl~: thaw-nan. 'That (name) Chaluay lS a woman's name only.'

3. /la/ or /la/ 'the new or contrastlve thlng (I have Just mentloned) , ThlS ltem lS probably to be ldentlfled wlth the complementlve /lE£w/ 'already. ' chaluaJ: la , pen chyy phuU-Jl~: thaw-nan. 'Now Chaluay (on the other hand) lS a woman's name only. ' suan nag-rlan trlam paJ s~0m: kan la ... 'If one brlngs up the subJect Df the preparatory students gOlng to drlll, now ... '

4. /waa/ 'as follows (new or old quotatlon) , ThlS ltem lS a homonYm of a conJunctlon wlth slmllar meanlng (4.3. 3.3.). There lS a Sllght dlfference In emphasls dependlng on whether the /waa/ occurs before or after the lntonatlon break. Compare the flrst two examples below. khaw phuud samee: waa , aahaan maJ-ar;0J • 'What they always say lS that the food lS no good. ' khaw phuud samee , waa aahaan maJ-ar;0J • 'They're always talklng (about lt, saYlng among other thlngs) that the food lS no good. ' Internal order of the sub-group lS 1-3, 4. The forms /na/, /la/ and /la/ are related to homonymous sentence partlcles (4.5.1.). 4.5.

Sentence Partlcles

A sentence partlcle lS any bound lexeme WhlCh lS always the last constltuent, or part of the last constltuent, apart from lntonatlon, In any clause In WhlCh It occurs (regardless of the order In WhlCh lt actually occurs). The co-constltuents of sentence partlcles are entlre predlcatlons, enumeratlons, expresslons, and phrases, and also such constructlons plus thelr postposltlonal modlflers. The term 'sentence partlcle' (chosen lnstead of 'clause partlcle') lndlcates a further relatlonshlp: most types of sentence partlcles (except 3. /khrab/-class, below) occur only once per sentence, rather than once per clause. In addltlon, many sentence partlcles have varlant forms condltloned ln two ways: 1) by clause lntonatlon, and 2) by the presence of other sentence partlcles.

Since the members of thlS class often occur ln clusters at the ends of clauses, always after the morpheme / : /, the term codaphrase lS used to refer to such groups of sentence partlcles. The maXlmum length of a codaphrase lS four lexemes (or four syllables, lf one or more two-syllable partlcles are present). The sub-classlflcatlon of sentence partlcles lS based on posltlon ln the codaphrase, and the names of the sub-classes are taken from one of the posslble maXlmum sequences: khun maJ-paJ kab-khaw: r;g-ryy-khrab nll t .

SUb-classes: rWell, (you mean) yourre not gOlng wlth them~! r The general class meanlng of sentence partlcles lS 'attltude of the speaker toward what he lS saylng, I but the members of the flrst sub-class (/rog/-class) also resemble enumeratlve postposltlons (4.4.4.) ln that they have close tles wlth speclflc syntactlc elements ln the clause. The whole class lS closed, and small, posslbly belng Ilmlted to the members Ilsted ln the followlng sectlons. All members occur both by themselves and ln codaphrases. The meanlngs of sentence partlcles can be only vaguely stated, because a great deal'depends on the emotlonal lnterplay between speakers. For the same reason, lt lS dlfflcult to quote out of context examples of sentences contalnlng partlcles. In order to avold repeatlng examples wlth sufflclent context under dlfferent headlngs, a number of lengthy examples are glven consecutlvely ln the last sectlon (4.5.5.) under the general headlng 'Sample Exchanges.' Reference lS made to these examples after the lllustratlons of use of lndlvldual members of the class of sentence-partlcles. 4.5.1. /rog/ Class These sentence partlcles occur ln the flrst relatlve posltlon of the codaphrase, and are ln complementary dlstrlbutlon wlth respect to each other. Some of them have varlant forms dependlng on clause lntonatlon, and others have forms WhlCh occur ln absolute clause-flnal posltlon only. The flrst flve members have strong tles wlth the substantlve elements of the clause, and the last three wlth predlcatlve elements. None has an emphatlc form (occurr1ng slmultaneously w1th / J I); when / J / lS present a member of 2; /ryy/-class lS also present 1n the codaphrase. 1. /r5g/ and /r~g/ or /d~g/ or /dr~g/ 'not that' (after negat1ve), 'that's what' (otherw1se)

The h1gh-tone var1ant occurs 1n absolute clause-f1nal pos1t1on when / t / lS present (th1S be1ng the most common env1ronment of the ent1re 1tem), and one of the low-tone var1ants occurs elsewhere. In codaphrases, 1t 1S followed by these members of sub-class 2): 1. /ryy/, 2. /Sll/, and 3. /naa/. When followed 1mmed1ately by a member of sub-class 3), 1t determ1nes the select10n of the statement form - e.g. /kha/, but when sub-class 2) 1ntervenes, the quest10n form of the sub-class 3) member may be selected - e.g. /kha/ (see also

The 1tem /r5g/ 1S almost ent1rely restr1cted to occurrence 1n clauses conta1n1ng a negat1ve (member of the /maJ/ class of modals, 4.1.3.), but occas1onally turns up 1n pos1t1ve statements (see last two examples below). It does not occur after /Jaa/ 'don't.' It has reference to substant1ve elements 1n the clause, often to the subJect, and d1rects the force of the negat10n toward them and away from pred1cat1ve elements. In Ch1S mean1ng 1t contrasts semant1cally w1th the 1tem /188J/ 'at all,' Wh1Ch 1S a complement1ve of the /eeD/ class ( and a postpos1t1on, rather than a sentence part1cle (see contrast1ve examples below).

pham maJ-daJ paJ: r5g t . 'I d1dn't goJ' ('not me') pham maJ-daJ paJ: 188J . 'I d1dn't go at all.' ('not anywhere, not any t1me') khaw maJ-maa thamaJ: r~g-na t . 'Why wouldn't he come~' maJ-chaJ naD-syy kh0QD-chan: r~g-na . 'You see, 1t's not ~ book.' wan-nan khun mSJ-daJ-paJ baa~-s£En: r;g-ree . 'D1dn't you go to Bangsaen that day~' chan l~Q len: r~g . Jaa krood: 188J • 'I was only fool1ng (that's what). Don't be angry.' diaw daJ hua-tEEg kan-maD: r5g t . 'Pretty soon you'll get your heads cracked, that's whatf' (See also Exchanges, 4.5.5., Nos. 1-2, 2-1, 3-3, 7-2, 7-7, 8-4, 11-4, 12-3, and 14-2.)

2. /na/ 'that's what, that's who, that's where, etc.' Thls ltem by ltself lS easlly confused wlth the postposltlon /na/ (, and wlth homonymous forms In the /ryy/ and /n{l/ sub-classes of sentence partlcles ( and, but lS clearly dlstlngulshable when It lS followed In codaphrases by one of these members of sub-class 2): 1. /ryy/, 2. /Sll/, 3. /naa/, and 4. /le/. Semantlcally It replaces /r5g/ In most posltlve statements, and lS rare after negatlves. k5 khun-ee~: naSll t . 'Well, It was you yourself (that's who)!' khun c~d, nar88 , s;8b daJ . rDld Chlt really pass the exam (lS that who you mean)?' man cathuug hua tua-ee~: nanaa • 'Why, you mlght hlt yourself In the head wlth It, that's what. ' khun: nalE , Ch08b tham sia~ da~: n~g • 'You really llke to make a lot of nOlse, you do. ' (See also Exchanges I-h, 2-1, 3-4, and 7-4.)

3. /nll/ or /nl/ lthlS lS who, thls lS what, etc.' Statements about /na/ apply also to thls ltem, and the dlstrlbutlon lS the same except that /nll/ does not appear to occur before /ryY/. The dlfference meanlng lS very sllght, but speakers prefer /nll/ to /na/ whenever the hearer lS not presumed to know the lnformatlon glven. (Thls may In turn account for the absence of /nll/ before the sentence partlcle /ryy/, whlch requests lnformatlon.) k5 khaw r~u-cag kan JUU-188W, nllnaa . 'But they already know each other. ' k5 man cathuug kracog: nllnaa • 'Well, you mlght hlt the wlndow wlth It, don't you see. ' ('thls lS what r ) ~lun: nile , ch58b tham sla~ da~: n~g . 'Say, you really llke to make a lot of nOlse. ' (See also Exchanges 2-2, 9- 2 , and 9-5.)

4. /~aJ/ 'somethlng known prevlously becomes newly relevant' or 'how can one overlook thls fact' Thls ltem lS easlly confused wlth a postposltlon of slmllar meanlng ( and also lS homonymous wlth one form of a complementlve meanlng 'how' (the other form belng /Ja~aJ/)' It occurs alone In clause- and phrase- 203 flnal posltl0n, and In codaphrases before only one member o~ sub-class 2): 5. /la/. Whether followed by /la/ or not, It determlnes selectl0n of the questlon form of any sub-class 3) member In the same codaphrase. /~aJ/ lS very frequent as a flnal partlcle In sentences lntroduced by the responses /naJ/ and /~aJ/ (, 6.). Jaaw t thamaJ syy sll-khiaw maa-l1g: la • naJ , boog-waa maJ-choobl ~aJ • 'Why on earth dld you buy green agaln~ I thought you sald you dldn't 11ke It.' ('how can one explaln that~') nll na~-syy thll khun-cld faag maa-haJ: ~aJ • 'Here's that book Chlt gave me to glve you.' (More commonly sald wlth postposltlon /~aJ/: nlll ~aJ , na~-syy thll khun-cld faag maa-haJ .) chan boog lE8W. ~aJ-la , waa man phed • 'I already told you (dldn't I) that It was SP1CY. I (See also Exchanges 12-2 and 13-2.)

5. /ne/ or /nle/ 'somethlng prevl0usly unknown lS now relevant' or 'don't overlook thlS new thlng. ' Both forms also occur as postposltl0ns wlth slml1ar meanlng (4.4. 4.). The form /ne/ occurs only In clause-or phrase-flnal posltl0n, but the form /nle/ (posslbly analyzable morphemlcally as /nll/ plus /le/) also precedes one member of sub-class 2): 1. /rYy/. Llke 4. /~aJ/, wlth WhlCh It lS In semantlc contrast, thlS partlcle determlnes the questl0n form of any sub-class 3) member In the same codaphrase. duu khaw tham araJ: ne • ILook at what (new thlng) they are dOlng now. I chan syy phaa maa-faag ch~n: ny~ ne • 'Here's a plece of cloth I bought for you.' 'Just the one plece~' paJ naJI kan n18 t . 'Where do you thlnk you're gOlng~ (thlS lS news to me)' (See also Exchanges 1-3, 4-1, and 4-2.)

6. /la/ or /la/ or /la/ 'changed sltuatl0n' ThlS ltenl lS sa1d by ST speakers to be a shortened form of /1£8W/ 'already,' but 1n fact lt occurs d1rectly after /1£8W/ ltself 1n the same wlth /ryy/ Any lnterroglndeflnlte clause. It lS, however, closely tled to predlcatlve elements, rather than substantlve ones. The form /la/ occurs In clause-and-phrase-flnal posltlon, the forms /la/ and /la/ elsewhere. In codaphrases lt lS followed by these members of sub-class 2): 1. /ryy/, 2. /Sll/, 3. /naa/, and 6) ma~. By ltself lt determlnes the statement form of any sub-class 3) partlcle. thaa Ja~an , chan maJ-paJ: la • 'In that case I won't go, then.' aw: la , phoo thaw-nil: koon • 'All rlght, then, that's enough for the tlme belng.' khun capaJ: lares. 'Are you gOlng, now~' ('You weren't, Just a mlnute ago. ,) '~you must be full I , dlchan t5~ paJ-koon: lana. 'I'd better be gOlng, now.' hen camaag: paJ lama~ • 'Maybe lt's too much already.' (See also Exchanges 15-2.)

7. /maJ/ 'Yes-no questlon' ThlS partlcle lS tled dlrectly to the predlcator of the clause, and does not occur In clauses WhlCh have no predlcatlve elements (for example, In clauses conslstlng of substantlve expresslons, equatlons, and enumeratlons). Morphologlcally speaklng, lt lS related to the negatlve /maJ/, and does not occur In clauses contalnlng any /maJ/-class modal. If the predlcator lS a transltlve verb, the use of /maJ/ lmplles that a voluntary cholce lS posslble, or that the sltuatlon lS capable of change - lt lS not used, for example, for past sltuatlons of for scheduled future events. If the predlcator lS an adJectlve, the selectlon of /maJ/ lS nearly automatlc, regardless of tlme factors, and slmply lmplles that an evaluatlon lS belng asked for. If the predlcator lS a completlve verb or a modal verb, the standard way to ask a questlon lS wlth /maJ/, unless a tlme-element lS Involved, In WhlCh case /rYJa~/ 'yet7 r ( lS selected. As a sentence partlcle /maJ/ contrasts most strongly ( flrst, thlrd and fourth palrs examples below. atlve word In a clause contalnlng /maJ/ automatlcally has ltS meanlng - see second palr of examples. /maJ/ has a cltatlon form /maJ/, WhlCh also turns up occaslonally In formal styles of speech, but no other allolexes. In codaphrases lt lS 205 followed by these members of sub-class 2): 3. Inaal and 5. Ila/. It determlnes the selectlon of the questlon-form of sub-class 3) members In all codaphrases In whlch It occurs. thaan kaa-fee ilg: maJ • 'Wlll you have some more coffee~' thaan kaa-fee ilg • ryy • 'You're havlng more coffee, are yoU?' (adJectlve predlcator) or: ora khaw tO~-kaan araJ: maJ . 'Do they want somethlng~' khaw to~-kaan araJ • 'What do they want~ , khun cho8b pen thahaan: maJ . 'Do you llke (the ldea of) belng a soldler~' 'Would you llke to be a soldler~ I khun choab pen thahaan: ryy . Do you llke belng a soldler~' khaw paJ-duu na~: duaJ-kan maJ • 'Are they gOlng along (as a matter of cholce) to see the mOVle~ r khaw paJ-duu na~: duaJ-kan ryy . 'Dld they go along to see the mOVle~' 'Are they scheduled to go along to see the movle7 ' 'Do they (as a matter of fact) go along to see the mOVle~' mya-waan-n{l paJ-duu na~ , sanug: maJ • 'Was It fun gOlng to the mOVle yesterday~ I raw paJ-duu na~ , dll. maJ • 'Shall we go see a mOVle (lS It a good ldea)~' (adJectlve predlcator) , khun Jaag capaJ duaJ-kan: maJ • 'Do you want to go along? (modal verb predlcator) (answer requlred) m8J-na • thlnk) llke chan syy nau-syy nll maa-faag khun-cid , khaw choob. 'I bought thlS book to glve Chlt - wlll he (do you It? ' (oplnlon requested) (See also Exchanges 7-1, 11-1, 11-3, and 12-5.) raw paJ-duu na~ , daJ' maJ • 'Can we go to see the mOVle?' (completlve verb predlcator). chan syy nau-syy nll maa-~aag , khun choob maJ-la 'I bought thlS book to glve you - do you llke It?' 206

8. /the/ or /theed/ 'why not, let's, why don't you' Thls partlcle lS tled to the predlcate and, llke 6. /maJ/, does not occur In clauses whlch do not have predlcatlve elements. Also, It does not occur In the same clause wlth the pre-predlcate preposltlon /ca-/ (4.2.6. 3.2.). The second varlant /theed/ lS largely a cltatlon form but occurs In formal varletles of speech as well. In codaphrases It lS followed by these members of sub-class 2): 2. /Sll/ and 3. /naa/, the latter belng far more common. It determlnes the selectlon of the statement form of the sub-class 3) member In all codaphrases In whlch It occurs. The meanlng of /the/ lS always a mlld suggestlon, elther advocatlng JOlnt actlon lncludlng the speaker (In whlch case the pronoun /kan/ often occurs somewhere In the clause) or unllateral actlon by someone other than the speaker. It lS not used In statements of fact, or In urglng people to belleve assertlons, as lS the other 'command' partlcle /Sll/ ( raw paJ: kan the • 'Let's go. ' khun kln: sa the • 'Go ahead and eat It (If you want It).' kln: sa s{ t . 'Go ahead and eat It (whether you want It or not.)' kln sa-the lSll t . 'Please go ahead and eat ltl' khun be~ haJ-chan thyy ma~: the . 'Why don't you let me carry some of them~ , saaJ leEw , paJ kan: the-na • 'It's late, let's get~.' (See also Exchanges 7-6, 8-1, 8-3, and 10-3.) These sentence partlcles occur In the second relatlve posltlon of the codaphrase, and are In complementary dlstrlbutlon. All members can follow at least one member of the /r5g/-class (4.5.1.) All have varlant forms, some of whlch are condltloned and some In free varlatlon. Each member has an emphatlc form (occurrlng slmultaneously wlth /1/), and SOme of the emphatlc forms are dlstlnct from all other allolexes of the partlcles they represent. The /ryy/-class members, except for 4. /le/ and 5. /la/, are true sentence partlcles In the sense that they do not have reference to speclflc syntactlc constructlons, but to the sentence as a whole. The sub-class meanlng lS 'expected reactlon from the hearer.' 1. /ryy/ ltself has four derlVatlves (lexemes contalnlng ltS allomorph /ry/) WhlCh actually belong to the /r5g/ class, Slnce they can all be followed by /18/ and /naa/ from the present class, but they are llsted under /ryy/ for convenlence of contrast. 1. /ryy/, freel, /ry/, /re/, or feel 'lS the assumptlon correct" ' Emphatlc form: /Jryys/ Derlvatlves: /rYJa~/ or /Ja~/ 'or not yet; yet'l ' /ry-m8J/ 'or not' /ryplaaw/ 'or otherwlse' /ry~aJ/ 'or what' The varlants of the slmple partlcle are dlstrlbuted as follows: /ryY/, freel, and feel occur In absolute phrase-or-clause-flnal posltlon and, commonly, after members of the /r5g/-class; /ry/ and /re/ occur everywhere, but most commonly wlth / t / or before members of the /khrab/-class (4.5.3.). The emphatlc form /ryy/ occurs only wlth loud stress and extra duratlon, and lS nearly always lronlC. The presence of any form of /ryy/, lncludlng ltS derlvatlves, determlnes the selectlon of the questlon form of any sub-class 3) member. The slmple partlcle occurs In clauses of any syntactlc composltlon whatever, lncludlng substantlve expresslons, eq¥atlons, enumeratlons, and even slngle substantlve lexemes. Its meanlng lS slmply 'conflrm ~y assumptlon' or 'conflrm my understandlng of what you Just sald. I It lS mandatory In questlons about past events bUllt around a transltlve verb predlcator, and In negatlve questlons of any klnd (see for comparlson wlth /maJ/-questlons and examples of the contrast). It lS one of the posslbllltles for questlonlng a non-predlcatlve element of a clause, another POSS1blllty belng the phrase /ch8J: maJ/ 'Is that so" I WhlCh can nearly always replace It ln thlS use. The four derlvatlve partlcles, on the other hand, are actually members of the /r5g/-class and are much closer to /maJ/ ln use. /rYJa~/ 'or not yet' lS closely tled to predlcates and lS usually assoclated wlth the ltem /18EW/ 'already.' /ry-m8J/ 'or not' can replace /maJ/ In any of lts uses but lS sllghtly more formal. /rffplaaw/ 'or otherwlse' lS usually an elegant Substltute for /ryy/ ltself, but can also replace /maJ/. The last derlvatlve, /ry~aJ/ lS an lnformal Substltute for /ryy/ but also functlons as a much more open questlon-word of the /maJ/ type. All four can be followed by the sub-class 2) partlcles 3. /naa/ and 5. /18/. Only /rJ~aJ/ can follow a negatlve In the same clause. No member of th1s group, 1nclud1ng /ryy/ 1tself, can follow /Jaa/ 'don't.' As 1n the case of /maJ/, 1nterrogat1ve words have the1r 1ndef1n1te mean1ngs before these part1cles. In codaphrases, /ryY/ (but not 1tS der1vat1ves) can be followed not only by sub-class 3) part1cles, but also by the two sub-class 4) part1cles /n1.1/ and /nan/. , '" JalJan: ryy • 'I s tha t so~, re'"e • 'Th1s coa t" ' SOOlJ thum: rykha . 'E1ght o'clock~' khaw chyY cld. reha • 'H1s name 1S Ch1t~ , C1lJ-C1lJ: ee t . 'Really~ , m11 Jryy t manud cab1n daJ • 'Is there such a th1ng as a man that can fly~J' khaw paJ-leEw: ree • 'Are they gone already~' khaw paJ-leEw: rYJalJ • 'Have they gone yet~' khaw capaJ: rYJalJ • 'Are they g01ng yet~' khaw capaJ: rYmaJ • 'Are they g01ng or not~ , khaw paJI ryplaaw. 'D1d they go~' thee ruu: ryplaaw • 'Do you know~ , khaw capaJ: rYlJaJ • 'Are they g01ng, or what" ' khun maJ-chSoba rYlJaJ , thYlJ maJ-kh5J-saJ: leeJ • 'Don't you l1ke 1t, or what - that you hardly ever wear 1t~ " , V N khun maJ-paJ wad. rekha • 'Aren't you g01ng to the temple'" khaw ma J-pa J w~d: renan t . 'You mean he's not gOlng to the temple~J' mod we-laa 18EW: renll t. 'Is the tlme up already~! I (For more examples, see /maJ/,, and Exchanges 1-4, 2-1, 4-2, 5-6, 9-1, 10-2, and 16-1.)

2. /Sll/, /s{l, /si/, or ISll 'thls lS the correct behavlor or bellef (change yours If necessary)' The flrst three forms occur only In phrase- or clause-flnal pOSltlon, the form Is{/ usually wlth hlgh lntonatlon I t I, Isil wlth normal Intonatlon, and ISll/ wlth elther type. The form /Sl/ lS almost entlrely restrlcted to occurrence In codaphrases before sub-class 3) members, whlch may have elther thelr statement or questlon forms, the latter belng more common when / t / lS present. Sub-class 4) does not occur after any form of /Sll/. The composltlon of clauses In whlch thls partlcle lS found lS ldentlcal wlth that descrlbed for Iryy/ ( - the co-constltuent may be even a slngle non-predlcatlve lexeme (see flrst example below). ISll/ lS used most commonly to urge actlon on the part of someone who lS not actlng, or to change the course of actlon of someone who lS. When the actlon recommended lS somethlng beneflclal to the hearer ('Please Slt down! I), the use of /Slll In thlS sense lS not famlllar; otherwlse, It deflnltely lS. A second use of /Sll/ lS In emphatlc statements, where It elther expresses or urges agreement. Llke the sentence partlcle ImaJ/ ( It does not occur In statements about past events whlch have a transltlve verb predlcator, belng replaced In thls sltuatlon by the partlcle /nll/ - see contrastlve examples below. /Sll/ can follow any negatlve, and lS frequently found after IJaa/ 'don't. I In codaphrases It lS followed only by sub-class 3) partlcles, never by sub-class 4). Interrogatlve words have lndeflnlte meanlngs before /Sll/. sawad-dll: sa Sll • I Say hello! I (/sawad-dlll lS an lsolatlve.) cheen nalJ: slha t . 'Please have a seat!' , , t paJ sa-nooJI Sl • 'Why don I t you .B2.! ' maa-duu araJ nil: Sll t 'Come look at somethlng here! ' , v Jaa paJ-naJ: Sll • 'Don't go anywhere, now.' thaa Ja~;n , chan ko maJ-daJ-paJ naJ: Sl • 'In that case I won't go anywhere. ' cf. pham maJ-daJ-paJ naJ: 188J nil t . 'Well, I dldn't go anywhere at all!' nan: slkhrab . 'That's exactly It.' capaJ , k5paJ; Sl • 'If you're gOlng, then go ahead.' mll ! Sll t . 'Of course there are some!' dlll slkha t thamaJ camaJ-dll t . 'It's good! Why wouldn't lt be good~' (See also examples under /th8/, 4.5.1.d., and Exchanges 1-1, 1-3, 5-2, 5-3, 5-7, 6-1, 6-2, 7-4, 7-8, 10-1, 12-4, 15-2, and 16-2.) 3. /naa/, /na/, or /na/ 'I thlnk, lsn't lt so, don't you agree' Emphatlc forms: /ln50:/ and /!naa./ All three weak-stressed forms occur ln phrase-and clause-flnal POS1tlon, wlth sllghtly dlfferent meanlngs. /naa/ ltself urges acceptance of the speaker's wlshes or lnstructlons, and lS very close to /Sll/ ( 1D mean1ng and u~age, although lt lS weaker and somewhat more pollte. It occurs frequently after the sub-class 1) partlcles 2. /na/ and 3. /nll/ (see 4.5. 1.). The second varlant /na/ lS more lnslstent, but not necessarlly rude, and commonly follows the sub-class 1) partlcles 1. /rog/ and 8. /th8/. Both /naa/ and /na/ are replaced by the emphatlc form /!naa:/. The thlrd form /na/ ln flnal posltlon lmplles merely a weak questlon or request for conflrmatlon. It frequently follows the sub-class 1) partlcles 6. /la/ and 7. /maJ/, mean1ng somethlng llke 'I wonder If.•• '. When lnterrogatlve words occur ln lts sentence, the effect lS somethlng 11ke an echo-questlon ('I am supposed to know thlS, but tell me agaln. ,) /na/ lS replaced ln all lts uses by the emphat1c form /!noo:/. The form /na/ lS also the only one Wh1Ch precedes other sentence partlcles ln codaphrases, replac1ng both /naa/ and /na/. It occurs only before sub-class 3), never before sub-class 4}, and always determlnes the selectlon of the quest10n form of the /khrab/-class partlcle.

Except for the ObV10US relatlonshlp of the form /na/ to lnterrogatlve words, the partlcle /naa/ does not have close tles wlth any partlcular type of clause constltuent, and resembles 1. /ryy/ and 2. /Sll/ In thlS respect. Its forms occur after all types of negatlve an~ /Jaa/ 'don't.' , Jaa paJI naa • 'Don't go, O.K.~' Jaa paJ-naJ: na • 'Don't go anywhere, wlll you~' pham maJ-daJ-paJ naJ: leeJ na • 'I dldn't go anywhere at all, dld I~' paJ' thee Jnaa t . 'Aw, come on and go, wlll you~' boog leEwl nanaa , maJ chya • 'I already told you, dldn't I, but you dldn't belleve me. ' boog leEw: nll-naha , maJ chya • 'ThlS lS what I told you, wasn't lt, but you dldn't belleve me. ' paJ thaa~ naJI nakhrab • 'WhlCh way lS lt that you are gOlng~' thamaJa na . 'I wonder why that lS.' thama J Jnoo t . 'But why~ J ' khaw moo~ henl maJ-na . 'Do you thlnk he can see lt~' laa: thll lana. 'Goodbye, now ••. ' saaJ 18Ew . paJ: kan the-na . 'It's late. Let's get gOlng - O.K.?' ke~: Cl~ na . 'That's really clever, lsn't lt~' (See also examples under sub-class 1) partlcles WhlCh precede /naa/, 4.5.1., and Exchanges 1-2, 3-4, 7-6, and 15-1.) 4. /le/ or /la/ or /e/ 'here's the thlng we've been looklng fori Emphatlc form: /!leE:/ All three forms are In free varlatlon. ThlS lS a statement partlc1e, very slml1ar In meanlng to /~aJ/ (, WhlCh has strong tles to the 212 'That's all, now.' demonstratlve system but also occurs wlthout any demonstratlve element ln the same sentence. It follows the ~ub-class 1) partlcles 2. /na/ and 3. /nil/, and precedes only sub-class 3) partlcles, for WhlCh lt determlnes the selectlon of the statement form. Belng the most soclally acceptable of the statement partlcles, /le/ frequently replaces 2. /Sll/ where the latter would be rude. It lS rare after negatlves, where lt lS usually replaced by /rog/ (, and after /Jaa/ 'don't. ' nan !leE t chan boog-IEEwl maJ-la . 'That's Just It! Dldn't I tell you so~' khun: ni le-kha , choob tham sla~ da~: nag • 'You (are the one who) really llke to make a lot of nOlse. ' pham maJ-daJ-paJ naJ leeJI la t . 'I dldn't go anywhere at all! r nill e-ryy , cahaJ chan saJ: paJ • 'Is thls the one you want me to wear?' thaw-nan: e • 'That's lt, now. r Cl~: nale-ha • 'That's rlght!' (See also Exchanges 4-3.) 5. /la/ or /law/ or /la/ 'tell me!'

Emphatlc form: /!laa:/ The flrst two weak-stressed forms are ln free varlatlon ln phraseand clause-flnal posltlon. The form /la/ occurs only before other sentence partlcles ln the codaphrase. ThlS lS baslcally a questlon-partlcle, occurlng frequently after lnterrogatlve words, wlth WhlCh lt has a speclal relstlonshlp, and after the sub-class 1) partlcle 7. /maJ/. It also occurs ln statements, however, and frequently follows the sub-class 1) partlcle 6. /~aJ/, wlth a meanlng somethlng llke 'how about that!' In elther case lt determlnes the questlon-form of any sub-class 3) member WhlCh follows. It lS not followed by sub-class 4) members. The partlcle /la/, ln both statements and questlons, lS at best famlllar and at worst rude unless lt 1S followed by a sub-class 3) partlcle. It has strong tles wlth lnterrogatlve elements of ltS clause, but occurs wlthout them and even after /Jaa/ 'don't.' 213 thamaJ ch~a: n~g la t . 'Why are you so late}' hena maJ-law . 'Do you see It",' thamaJ ch~a: n~g la-khrab • 'Why are you so late",' 1m lEE1r1l l~Sll t chaJ: maJ-la 'You must be full, aren't you", ' (The flrst /l~/ lS /r5g/-class, Jaa paJ-naJ: Ia . rpon't go anywhere!' paJ thaa~-naJ: la-kha . 'WhlCh way shall I go",' chan pen s~ed-thll mya-raJ: law t. 'When would I ever be a rlch man! ' pham capa J da J Ja~a J I kan Jlaa t. 'How the devll would I be able to get there",' nan: ~aJ-la , khuu-man khoa~ khun-cid . 'There she lS - Chlt'S flanc~e. ' (See also contrastlve examples under /maJ/,, and Exchanges 3-2, 5-4, 7-3, 12-5, 13-1, and 16-3.) 6. /ma~/ or /ma~/ 'perhaps'

Emphatlc Form: The form /ma~/ determlnes the questlon-form of any sub-class 3) partlcle WhlCh follows, and the form /ma~/ determlnes the statement form. Both are preceded by the sub-class 1) partlcle 6. /l~/, and both are followed by the sub-class 4) partlcle 1. /nll/ In the codaphrase. The dlfference In meanlng between the two varlants lS sllght: /ma~/ expects an conflrmlng answer more than /ma~/ does. A cltatlon form, /krama~/, 18 rarely heard outslde of formal style.

ThlS partlcle has an ObV10US morpholog1cal relat10nshlp wlth /baa~/ 'some' (Wh1Ch has an allolex /ma~/), and also lS poss1bly related to the quest1on-part1cle /maJ/ (, but It has no t1es w1th any part1cular type of clause const1tuent. It lS sllghtly fam1l1ar 1n sOC1al connotat1on, but by no means rude.

hen camaagl paJ lama~ • 'Maybe 1t'S a Ilttle too much.' kh{d-waa khaw cachooba ma~ . 'Do you thlnk she mlght llke lt7' nil kho~-chaJ: lama~-kha-nll • 'Thls must be the rlght one, all rlght. r thaa khaw camll thur~: lama~ • 'I guess he must be busy. ! (See also Exchanges 9-3, 14-1.)


These sentence partlcles occur In the thlrd relatlve posltlon of the codaphrase, and are In complementary dlstrlbutlon. Each member has at least two forms, morphologlcally related through a superflx ( the questlon form, whlch antlclpates further dlscourse (elther by speaker or hearer), and the statement form, whlch does not. Both forms occur In the lnterlor of dlscourses, the questlon form usually before / , / or / t / and the statement form before / . /, and both occur at the ends of dlscourses. (Clauses endlng In / t / and phrases endlng In / , / are sald to have 'suspenslve lntonatlon, I requlrlng the questlon the form of any /khr~b/-class partlcle.) Most members of the class are also morphologlcally related to respons e s (3 . 1. 2. ) .

No member of the class lS related to any partlcular klnd of clause constltuent, and the normal pattern of occurrence lS one /khr~b/-class partlcle per sentence (although exceptlons occur to thls In over-deferentlal speech). The class meanlng lS 'relnforcement of the speaker's status wlth the respect to the hearer,' and for the flrst four members, lnformatlon lS also glven on the sex of the speaker. The flrst two members are clearly deferentlal, the second two non-famlllar, the last two patronlzlng or rude. Among lntlmates and establlshed equals, often no partlcle at all lS used. Not Ilsted here are partlcles of extremely speclallzed use (e.g. those used In addresslng royalty). Full exempllflcatlon of the varlOUS uses of the /khr~b/-class partlcles lS glven only for members 3. and 4., but slnce, glven the proper soclal sltuatlon, the members are lnterchangeable, the same examples wlll apply to the whole class wlth the proper substltutlon of the form called for. Except for 4. /khs/, usage varles conslderably among speakers, however, the extreme example belng 6. /wa/, where no two lnformants agreed upon the dls~ rlbu~lon of far~s.

1. Statement form: Questlon form: Sltnatlon: /khraphom/ /khraphom/ Male speaklng to hlghly superlor, reverend, or noble personage.

2. Statement form: Questlon form: Sltuatlon:

3. Statement form: Questlon form: Sltuatlona /caw-kha/ /caw-kha'/ Female speaklng to hlghly superlor, reverend, or noble personage. /khrab/ or /ha/ /khrab/ or /ha/ Male speaklng to superlor, elder, or non-lntlmate equal person. (The phonemlcally less complex forms /ha/ and /ha/ are decldedly less formal.) c. khun saab: maJ-khrab phe En- thll , , waa JUu thll-na J . pham haa maJ-ph~b: leeJ khrab D. nll: lJa J ha . JUU bon-t~ a nll hen: maJ-ha . c. 'Do you know where the map lS~ I can't seem to flnd It anywhere. ' D. 'Here It lS. It's on the table here - see lt~ r 4. Statement form. Questlon forma Sltuatlon: /kha/ or /ha/ /kha/ or /ha/ Female speaklng to superlor, elder, or non-lntlmate equal person. (The forms /ha/ and /ha/ are less formal.) A. khun saab: maJ-kha , waa pheEn-thll JUu thll-naJ • dlchan haa maJ-phob: leeJ kha • B. nll lJaJ ha • JUu bon-t~ nll hen: maJ-ha • (Same translatlon as In 3. above.)

5. Statement form Questlon form: /ca/ or / Ja/ /ca/ or /Ja/ Person speaklng to lnferlor or younger person. Occaslonally used among equals. (Forms wlth /c/ more common among female speakers, those wlth /J/ among male speakers. )

6. statement forma Questlon form: Sl tua tlon: /wa/, /wa/, /w60 J/, or /weeJ/ /wa/, /w60 J/, or /weeJ/ Person speaklng rUdely or to lntlmate equal. (Dlstrlbutlon of forms not clear.) For examples, see Exchange 5 ( Two other partlcles probably are varlants of thlS member, but are lnsufflclently attested: feel and /eeJ/' Examples (all taken from women's speech) I wan-nil raw cakln araJ dll: eeJ • 'I wonder what we should have to eat today.' meE , te~-tua suaJ: Cl~ t capaJ naJ: eeJ t . 'Say, you're certalnly dressed beautlfullyJ Where are you gOlng?' chan b;og haJ-tom n~am thug-chaaw t thamaJ: na-ee , maJ ruu-cag cam t . 'I told you to bOll water every mornlngJ Why lS lt you never remember? ' A. khaw camaa haa khun wan-nil, chaJ: maJ • B. Cl~1 Sl-ee t chan lyYm sa-sanid t . A. They're comlng to see you today, aren't they~' B. Oh, that's rlghtJ I'd completely forgotten.' 4·5.4.

These two sentence partlcles occur In the fourth and last relatlve posltlon of the codaphrase, and are In complementary dlstrlbutlon. The subclass meanlng lS slmllar to that of the vocatlve /nll/ (, In that the effect lS to call the hearer to hlS senses. (The dlfference between the vocatlve /nll/ and the homonYmous partlcle lS slmply a phrase-boundary). Both members of the sub-class have many other homonYms, lncludlng partlcles of the /rog/ class (,3.), so that they are dlfflcult to ldentlfy unless they occur after a sub-class 3) (/khrab/-class) partlcle. Nelther member affects the selectlon of the form of the sub-class 3) partlcle, but both frequently occur Wl th / t / lntona tlon In clauses lntroduced by the conJunctlon /k5/ 'Well, '.

1. /nll/ or /nl/ 'here, now, you' nil kho~-chaJ: lama~-kha nil. 'ThlS must be the rlght one. ' (See also examples under /rog/ and /ryy/, and Exchanges 9-5.) 217

2. /nan/ or /na/ 'there, then, you' khaw paJ-l€cWI rekha-nan t. chan Ja~ maJ-than phuud kakhawl 188J • l(YoU mean) she's gone already~! I hadn't had a chance to talk to her at all. '

(See also examples under /r5g/ and /ryy/ and Exchanges 2-1.) The flow pattern of codaphrases, In terms of lndlvldual members of sub-classes 1) through 4), lS summarlzed below. It can be seen from the chart that /nll/-class partlcles occur relatlvely lnfrequently, and that they do not occur at all after /Sll/, /lE/, /la/, or after any partlcle contalnlng the demonstratlve morpheme /n/.

The key to the chart lS as follows. Sub-class 1) partlcles are arranged along the vertlcal aXls, and sUb-class 2) along the horlzontal. The presence of any symbol at an lntersectlon means that the two partlcles In questlon occur together. The symbol /S/ means that the statement form of the sub-class 3) partlcle, If present, lS called for; the symbol /Q/ means the questlon-form lS called for; the symbol /E/ means elther form lS posslble; and the symbol /X/ means nelther lS posslble. The symbol /N/ means sub-class 4) may occur. Flow Pattern of Codaphrases O.Mlsslng l./Eix/ 2./Sll/ 3./naa/4./1E/ S./la/ 6./maD/ O. Mlsslng EN QN 1. /r5g/ SN QN 2. /na/ E Q 3. /nll/ E Q 4. /DaJ/ E 5. /ne/ S Q 6. /la/ S QN 7. /maJ/ Q 8. /the/ SN E E E E E E 218 Q Q x x Q Q Q x s S S Q Q Q EN EN

Sample Exchanges

Follow1ng are some actual exchanges ( chosen spec1f1cally to 111ustrate the use of sentence part1cles, but also hav1ng relevance to the whole quest10n of pred1cate Subst1tut1on (see The reference system 1S as follows, each exchange 1S ass1gned a number and each sentence 1n the exchange 1S numbered consecut1vely regardless of speaker; the speaker of each d1scourse 1S 1dent1f1ed by a cap1tal letter, A. and B. for women, C. and D. for men. The reference '1-1' means the f1rst sentence of the f1rst exchange, and 'A' means 'f1rst woman speaker.' Translat10ns are glven only for whole exchanges.

Exchange 1. A. 1-1. duu: si khaw tham sya d1chan pyan: mod t . B. 1-2. khaw khOlJ ma J- da J- klEElJ: ' ,.. r8g-na . 1-3. t , n11' nE sa J sya d1chan pa J. slkha . 1-4· naree cahaJ d1chan , A. sya n11: , sa J: paJ B. 1-5. chaJ: kha . A. 1-1. Look how they got my blouse all d1rty. B. 1-2. I'm sure they d1dn't mean to. 1-3. Here, wear my blouse, w1ll you" A. 1-4· Is th1S the blouse you want me to wear" B. 1-5. Yes.

Exchange 2. A. 2-1. B. 2-2. A. 2-1. B. 2-2. khun maJ-paJ thiaw kab-khaw: r~g-rekha-na kS maJ-m11 khraJ chuan d1chan: n~l-kha Aren't you gOlng on the tr1p w1th them then" Well, nobody 1nv1ted me. 219 c. 3-1. D. 3-2. 3-3. c. 3-4. c. 3-1. D. 3-2. 3-3. c. 3-4. A. 4-1. B. 4-2. A. 4-3.

Exchange 3. man cath~ug hua tua-ee~: nanaa • Don't throw stones that way. Why not? 1 1m throwlng so as not to hlt the wlndows. You stlll mlght hlt yourself In the head, though.

Exchange 4. chan syy phaa maa-faag ch{n: ny~ n8 • ch{n sil-lya~: nie-rekha • chaJ , ch{n n~n: l£-kha • A. 4-1. Here's a plece of cloth 1 bought to glve you. B. 4-2. Thls yellow plecec , A. 4-3. Yes, tha t' s the one.

Exchange 5. c. 5-1. D. 5-2.' c. 5-3. 5-4. D. 5-5. c. 5- 6. D. 5-7. c. 5-1. D. 5-2. khraJ tham thuaJ-kE8w t88g: wa. Jaa phuud w~: slw~eJ t . b;;:>g: maa s{ t khraJ tham tE8ga la • m'"aJ-ruu: wa'" . maJ-r~u Cl~-Cl~:. rewa. b;;:>g-waa maJ-r~u , ko maJ-r~u: SlW~OJ t . Who broke the glass~ Don't say 'wah'J C. 5-3. Tell meJ 5-4. Who broke It'Z D. 5-5. I don't know. C. 5-6. You really don't know", D. 5-7 · If say I don't know, then I don'tJ

Exchange 6. C. 6-1. thaan khaaw dua J-kan: . slkhnl'b . D. 6-2. pham .. s8.'-l Eew: .. lm Sl . C. 6-1. Eat wlth us, wlll you", D. 6-2. I'm already full.

Exchange 7. A. 7-1. B. 7-2. A. 7-3. B. 7-4. 7-5. A. 7-6. 7-7. B. 7-8. .. maJ paJt r0g • thama J: la • chan maJ-Jaag paJ: naSl • man naa-klua-~0g • pa J' thenaa t . khun Jaag paJ , k5-paJ khon-dlaw: .. Sl • A. 7-1. B. 7-2. A. 7-3. B. 7-4. 7-5. A. 7-6. 7-7 · B. 7-8. Shall we go see the mOVle 'Psycho'~ I'm not gOlng. Why not", I Just don't want to go. It's terrlbly frlghtenlng. Come on and goJ It's not all that frlghtenlng. If you want to go, go by yourself.

Exchange 8. A. 8-1. maa-kln-khaawl kan the . 8-2. chan hlw-cataaJ: 188W . B. 8-3. thaa-lJan khun klnl sa the . 8-4· ma J- t3lJ kh88J chan: .. r8g . A. 8-1. Come on and ea t. 8-2. I'm starvlng already. B. 8-3. In that case you go ahead and ea t. 8-4. You don't have to walt for me.

Exchange 9. A. 9-1. B. 9-2. A. 9-3. 9-4. B. 9-5. A. 9-1. B. 9-2. A. 9-3. 9-4· B. 9-5. C. 10.1 A. 10-2 C. 10-3 C. 10-1 mya-waan-n{l chan haJ-deg aw-cod-maaJ paJ-haJ khun daJ-rab: ryplaaw • maJ-hen mll: 188J nil • thaa-JalJan khaw kholJ-faag khon-yyn waJ-haJ: malJ . t00n-nan khun kholJ maJ-Juu baan . mya-waan-n{l chan maJ-daJ-paJ naJ: 188J nll. Dld you get the letter that I had the boy take over to you yes terday" I dldn't see any (letter) at all. In that case he must have left lt wlth someone else to glve you, I guess. You must not have been home at the tlme. But I dldn't go anywhere at all yesterday. Exchange 10. ch88n nalJ: slha t . kaw-il nil kho0lJ-naaJ khun nalJ , maJ-chaJ: rekha. nalJl the-ha , maJ pen-raJ . Please have a seatJ

A. 10-2. C. 10-3. C. 11-1. D. 11-2. C. 11-3. D. 11-4. C. 11-1. D. 11-2. C. 11-3. D. 11-4. A. 12-1. 12-2. B. 12-3. A. 12-4· B. 12-5. 12-6. Thls chalr belongs to your boss, doesn't lt~ Go anead and Slt down, It'S all rlght.

Exchange 11. khun mll khan-~8n JaJ-JaJ baa~: maJ • pham maJ-mll: 188J , sag baJ: ny~ • J~e t khun cid , khaw camll: maJ-na • khaw ma J-mll: r5g t. Do you have any large slIver bowls~ I don't even have a slngle one. Say! I wonder If Chlt would have any. No, he wouldn't have any.

Exchange 12. chan syy sya: maa , tua: ny~ , myan kakhoa~ thee. v , maJ myan: rag • naJ , paJ-aw khoa~-thee maa-duu: Sl t . hen: maJ-la t maJ myan: kan leeJ • A. 12-1. I bought a new blouse, Just llke yours. 12-2. Thls lS l t. B. 12-3. It's not the same. A. 12-4· Well, go and get yours and let's see! B. 12-5. Do you see~ They're not a tall allke. c. 13-1. D. 13-2. C. 13-1. D. 13-2. A. 14-1. B. 14-2. 14-3. A. 14-1. B. 14-2. 14-3. c. 15-1. D. 15-2. 15-3. C. 15-1. D. 15-2. 15-3.

Exchange 13. thamaJ khun maJ-tham-lJaan:' 1a • ko pham kam-1alJ tham Juu-18EW: nll-lJaJ t . Why aren't you worklng~ Well I am worklng here, don't you see7

Exchange 14. dlchan casaJ sya Srl-dEElJ tua-n{l , kanulJ kaphroolJ s11-khlaw nan, daJ: malJ • maJ daJI rog-kha • man paJ: kan , khon-1athaalJ • Do you thlnk I can wear thlS red blouse wlth that green sklrt~ Not them. They go In Opposlte dlrectlons (clash).

Exchange 15. deg thaJ kadeg amee-rikaa , nisaJ maJ-myanl kan-188J na • ko n8E : lasit . ab-rom: maa , khon-1aJaalJ • Thal and Amerlcan chl1dren's characterlstlcs are not the same at all, are they~ Tha t 's for sure J They're brought up In dlfferent ways.

Exchange 16. A. 16-1. khun Y1a J-pa J baalJ- s Ecn duaJ: v ree . B. 16-2. paJ JSl.l t . 16-3. thamaJ thYlJ- cama J-pa J: la t . A. 16-1. You're not gOlng to Bangsaen el ther~ B. 16-2. Of course I'm gOlngJ 16-3. Why wouldn't I be gOlngJ